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Ancient Hunter-Gatherers And European Farmers Lived Together For 2,000 Years; Shared grave site, rarely interbred
Topic Started: Oct 10 2013, 09:59 PM (1,838 Views)
dapork
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Now this is interesting. Imagine a multicultural cave 7,000 years ago.

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Ancient Hunter-Gatherers And European Farmers Lived Together For 2,000 Years, Rarely Interbred
By Zoe Mintz on October 10 2013 4:11 PM

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Fossil skeletons taken from 'Blätterhöhle' cave near Hagen in Germany, reveal that indigenous hunter-gatherers lived alongside immigrant farmers for 2,000 years. Wikimedia Commons

Bones excavated from a German cave shed light on how hunter-gatherers and farmers lived side by side 7,500 years ago.

Fossil skeletons taken from the Blätterhöhle cave near Hagen in North Rhine-Westphalia reveal that indigenous hunter-gatherers lived alongside farmers who migrated to Central Europe from the Near East, archaeologists say. While the two groups tolerated each other, they did not mesh, the Washington Post reports.

Using DNA samples from bones taken from the cave, researchers found that for 2,000 years the two groups coexisted in the same region but did not mate – proving the hunter-gatherer lifestyle died out much later than previously thought.

"It is commonly assumed that the Central European hunter-gatherers disappeared soon after the arrival of farmers," Dr. Ruth Bollongino, lead author of the study, said in a statement. "But our study shows that the descendants of Mesolithic Europeans maintained their hunter-gatherer way of life and lived in parallel with the immigrant farmers, for at least 2,000 years.”

The findings, published in the journal Science, revealed how researchers used mitochondrial DNA analysis and isotope analysis to find out migration patterns, lineages and diets of the two groups.

In 2004, Blätterhöhle was discovered by archaeologists who excavated more than 450 skeletal fragments. Carbon dating reveals the cave was used in the Mesolithic period, between 9210 and 8340 B.C., and in the Neolithic period, between 3986 and 2918 B.C., most likely as a burial ground, LiveScience reports.

Mitochondrial DNA results taken from 25 of the skeletons indicated that some were hunter-gatherers while others were farmers. It was only when the isotope content of the samples were analyzed did researcher discover that the hunter-gatherers sustained a diet of fish while farmers relied on domesticated animals, Bollongino said. The two groups rarely interbred.

“It wasn’t until we saw the isotopes that we realized we were going to have to rewrite the paper completely,” Bollongino told the Washington Post. “They shared the same burial place for something between 400 and 600 years, so it would be very hard to explain that they did not know each other. We believe that they were close neighbors and had contact with each other and traded with each other. But still they didn’t mix.”

The results may prove who modern Europeans descended from. "Neither hunter-gatherers nor farmers can be regarded as the sole ancestors of modern-day Central Europeans,” Dr. Adam Powell, population geneticist at the JGU Institute of Anthropology, said. “European ancestry will reflect a mixture of both populations, and the ongoing question is how and to what extent this admixture happened."

http://www.ibtimes.com/ancient-hunter-gatherers-european-farmers-lived-together-2000-years-rarely-interbred-1421544
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TiManel
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Nice and I have thought about this scenario, I just wasn´t expecting this proximity (at least like the one that was documented for this case).
Edited by TiManel, Oct 10 2013, 10:35 PM.

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Crimson Guard
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Dienekes' blog is carrying this piece, some images:

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[blockquote]The genetic distance maps from the supplement for the three latest cultures (CWC: Corded Ware; BBC: Bell Beaker; and UC: Unetice):[/blockquote]
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http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2013/10/ancient-central-european-mtdna-across.html


Edited by Crimson Guard, Oct 10 2013, 10:55 PM.
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faintsmile1992
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In Central Asia the Gissar-Markansou tradition persisted into the middle of the Holocene alongside food producing neighbours.
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Keksalarm
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I wonder whether the hunter-gatherers and farmers differed physically from each other after several millennia of co-existance.
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faintsmile1992
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Keksalarm
Oct 14 2013, 10:07 PM
I wonder whether the hunter-gatherers and farmers differed physically from each other after several millennia of co-existance.
Why do you think an single European population is so variable as to include both lateral Alpinoids (Mesolithic-looking) and linear Nordics and Mediterraneans (Neolithic-looking) people?
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Nikolas
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faintsmile1992
Oct 14 2013, 11:04 PM
Keksalarm
Oct 14 2013, 10:07 PM
I wonder whether the hunter-gatherers and farmers differed physically from each other after several millennia of co-existance.
Why do you think an single European population is so variable as to include both lateral Alpinoids (Mesolithic-looking) and linear Nordics and Mediterraneans (Neolithic-looking) people?
If I've got you right, alpine=hunter-gatherer whilst med types = farmers
do you think the other wide-faced types, like east baltic, gorid and borreby are similarly hunter-gatherer influenced whilst other long-faced types like nordic, pontid and atlantid are more influenced from the later-arriving farming cultures?
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faintsmile1992
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Nikolas
Oct 14 2013, 11:39 PM
faintsmile1992
Oct 14 2013, 11:04 PM
Keksalarm
Oct 14 2013, 10:07 PM
I wonder whether the hunter-gatherers and farmers differed physically from each other after several millennia of co-existance.
Why do you think an single European population is so variable as to include both lateral Alpinoids (Mesolithic-looking) and linear Nordics and Mediterraneans (Neolithic-looking) people?
If I've got you right, alpine=hunter-gatherer whilst med types = farmers
do you think the other wide-faced types, like east baltic, gorid and borreby are similarly hunter-gatherer influenced whilst other long-faced types like nordic, pontid and atlantid are more influenced from the later-arriving farming cultures?
More or less. But some Upper Palaeolithic people were already linear Caucasians ie. Mladec, Abri Petaud etc. But most Mesolithic Europeans were alpinoids like the latetal Caucasians of the preceding Upper Palaeolithic, such as the Solutreans.
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TiManel
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This guy doesn´t strike me as UP at all (but surely there were some like this guy, during that time):


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Though I agree that other forms should have been more common during the same period.

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Keksalarm
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If I remember it correctly, the "alpinization process" set in at a later period, and the original hunter-gatherers were indeed more CM in looks.
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Ricky
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I think I remember that as well but in the Mesolithic, I think people tended to be a bit more robust overall anyway.
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The Baron
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Keksalarm
Oct 15 2013, 08:24 AM
If I remember it correctly, the "alpinization process" set in at a later period, and the original hunter-gatherers were indeed more CM in looks.
Well "Cro-Magnon" was just primitive Mediterranean, Alpine is ultimately an offshoot of the Mediterranean phenotype.
Wide faces and shorter body builds are more preferable in Northern climates, so Alpines are essentially borealized Mediterraneans.

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faintsmile1992
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Though long-skulled, Cro-Magnon proper was found by Howells to cluster with Berg, Austria and not with Mediterraneans or Nordics. Even in the Upper Paleolithic what can be broadly thought of as an Alpine line and a Mediterranean line (including Nordics) can be identified in Europe by the modern populations with which Upper Paleolithic Europeans cluster. Solutreans and (North African) Iberomaurusians were also 'lateral' rather than 'linear' Caucasians. The C3 Alpine is Angel's type closest to the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic 'Lateral Caucasoids'.
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