|Black members of US Congress|
|Topic Started: Oct 6 2013, 11:07 PM (1,432 Views)|
|Tsenacomoco||Oct 6 2013, 11:07 PM Post #1|
Most black Congresspeople have been of at least partial African American heritage. There are some that are not, one of whom should be pretty obvious.
I'll start with US Senators.
P.B.S. Pinchback of Louisiana, Republican
Term was 1875-1877 but he was never seated. Enslaved mother and white father.
Hiram Rhodes Revels of Mississippi, Republican
Served from 1869-1871. First black Senator seated, first black Congressman from Mississippi.
Blanche Kelso Bruce of Mississippi, Republican
Served 1875-1881. First black Senator to serve full six year term. Only senator to be a former slave. First black man to preside over the U.S. Senate. Enslaved mother and white father.
Edward William Brooke, III of Massachusetts, Republican
Served 1967-1979. First black Congressman from Massachusetts.
Edited by Tsenacomoco, Oct 7 2013, 02:51 AM.
|Tsenacomoco||Oct 7 2013, 02:47 AM Post #2|
Carol Elizabeth Moseley Braun of Illinois, Democrat
Served from 1993-99. First black woman and first black Democrat to serve in the Senate.
Barack Hussein Obama II of Illinois, Democrat
Served from 2005-09. White American mother and Luo Kenyan father.
Roland Wallace Burris of Illinois, Democrat
Served 2009-2011. First black Senator to succeed a black Senator.
Timothy Eugene Scott of South Carolina, Republican
William Maurice Cowan of Massacusetts, Democrat
Serves 2013-2015. First black senator appointed by a black governor, and the first to serve alongside another black senator.
Edited by Tsenacomoco, Oct 14 2013, 05:36 AM.
|Tsenacomoco||Oct 7 2013, 10:06 PM Post #3|
On to the U.S. House of Representatives
John Willis Menard of Louisiana, Republican
Denied seat, 1869-1871. Louisiana Creole and the first black representative to address the chamber.
Pinckney Benton Stewart Pinchback of Louisiana, Republican
Denied seat, 1873-1875. Born to a formerly enslaved mother and a white father.
First generation of black members of the House of Representatives, 1870-1887
Joseph Rainey of South Carolina, Republican
Served 1869-1879. Born a slave. First black member to serve in the House and first black Congressman from South Carolina. First black presiding officer of the House of Representatives.
Jefferson Franklin Long of Georgia, Republican
Served 1869-71. Born a slave. First black Congressman from Georgia, last until 1973.
Robert Carlos De Large of South Carolina, Republican
Robert Brown Elliott of South Carolina, Republican
Benjamin Sterling Turner of Alabama, Republican
Served from 1871-1873. Born a slave. The first black Congressman from Alabama.
Josiah Thomas Walls of Florida, Republican
Served 1871-77. Born a slave. First black Congressman from Florida, last until 1993.
Richard Harvey Cain of South Carolina, Republican
John Roy Lynch of Mississippi, Republican
Served 1873-77 and 1881-83. Born a slave to an enslaved mother and an Irish father. First black U.S. Representative from Mississippi, last until 1987.
Alonzo Jacob Ransier of South Carolina, Republican
James Thomas Rapier of Alabama, Republican
Jeremiah Haralson of Alabama, Republican
Served 1875-77. Born a slave. Last black Congressman from Alabama until 1993.
John Adams Hyman of North Carolina, Republican
Served 1875-77. Born a slave. First black Congressman from North Carolina.
Charles Edmund Nash of Louisiana, Republican
Served 1875-77. First black Congressman seated from Louisiana.
Robert Smalls of South Carolina, Republican
Served 1875-79 and 1881-87. Born a slave. South Carolina Gullah.
James Edward O’Hara of North Carolina, Republican
Served 1883-87. Irish American father and West Indian mother.
Edited by Tsenacomoco, Oct 9 2013, 04:40 AM.
|Tsenacomoco||Oct 9 2013, 04:33 AM Post #4|
Second generation of black members of the House of Representatives, 1887-1929
Henry Plummer Cheatham of North Carolina, Republican
Served 1889-1893. Born a slave to an enslaved mother and a white father.
John Mercer Langston of Virginia, Republican
Served 1889-91. Enslaved mother and English father. The first black Congressman from Virginia and last until 1993.
Thomas Ezekiel Miller of South Carolina, Republican
Served 1889-91. White biological father, raised by former slaves.
George Washington Murray of South Carolina, Republican
Served 1893-97. Born a slave. The last black Congressman from South Carolina until 1993.
George Henry White of North Carolina, Republican
Served 1897-1901. Born a slave. The last black congressman of the Jim Crow era, none would be elected again until 1973 after passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The last black Congressman from North Carolina until 1992.
Edited by Tsenacomoco, Oct 10 2013, 06:28 PM.
|Excel||Oct 9 2013, 02:50 PM Post #5|
|Some were allowed to serve their country in the mid 18th century however many have been barred since 1993, what was the cause of that?|
|Tsenacomoco||Oct 10 2013, 06:37 PM Post #6|
After the Civil War was over Congress passed the 13th Amendment of the Constitution which freed the slaves (which the state of Mississippi did not ratify until this year ).
Following this was a political period where the Radical Republicans gained control of Congress and passed the 14th amendment granting citizenship to blacks (anyone born in the US) with the full rights and protections of a citizen, including from states themselves in response to the Black Codes, mainly in Southern states, that restricted blacks’ freedom and compelled them into a forced labor economy. They also passed the 15th Amendment which gave blacks (men) the right to vote. Called Reconstruction the goal of this political era was to get the South functioning normally again while also transforming it into a more progressive society. The Republicans formed a coalition across most of the South with the aim of instituting a free labor economy. Many previous Confederate politicians and organizations had their votes and representation suspended. The Army, the Freedman’s Bureau, the US Justice Department and Presidential powers were used to protect blacks and suppress white Southern insurgency. In this climate blacks were able to get voted into local, state and national office. Also public schools and colleges were made available which increased the numbers of blacks eligible for such positions.
Unfortunately this period did not last long. The Republican party splintered over national and regional disputes and the Democrats came to power with the aim of repealing and repressing all laws and policies offering blacks political representation and full citizenship rights and protections. The end result was the near complete disfranchisement of blacks in the South, racial violence and repression, new institutions of forced labor, revocation of citizenship rights and total loss of political power and representation. Jim Crow laws (racial segregation and second class citizenship) went into effect and until the Voting Rights Act of 1965 most blacks in the South could not vote.
Jim Crow and racial violence led to the Great Migration where in the early 20th Century one and a half million blacks moved to northern cities and in the mid 20th 5 million moved north and out to western states. That is why starting in the early 20th Century blacks in Congress are from mostly northern states and none from the South again until the 1970s.
tl:dr Blacks lost all their citizenship rights, couldn’t vote and couldn’t run for public office much less get elected until the late 20th C.
|Tsenacomoco||Oct 10 2013, 08:34 PM Post #7|
Third generation of black members of the House of Representatives, 1929-1970
Oscar Stanton De Priest of Illinois, Republican
Served 1929-35. First black Congressman from IL and first from outside the South.
Arthur Wergs Mitchell of Illinois, Democrat
Served 1935-43. First black Congressman elected as a Democrat.
William Levi Dawson of Illinois, Democrat
Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. of New York, Democrat
Served 1945-71. First black Congressman from New York.
Charles Coles Diggs, Jr. of Michigan, Democrat
Served 1955-1980. First black Congressman from Michigan and the first chair of the Congressional Black Caucus.
Robert Nelson Cornelius Nix, Sr. of Pennsylvania, Democrat
Served 1957-79. First black Congressman from Pennsylvania.
Augustus Freeman Hawkins of California, Democrat
Served 1963-91. First black Congressman from California.
John James Conyers Jr. Michigan, Democrat
Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm of New York, Democrat
Served 1969-83. Father from British Guiana and mother from Barbados. First black woman in Congress and first black woman to run as a presidential candidate.
William Lacy Clay Sr. of Missouri, Democrat
Served 1969-2001. First black Congressman from Missouri. Succeeded in office by son.
Louis Stokes of Ohio, Democrat
Served 1969-99. First black Congressman from Ohio.
George Washington Collins of Illinois, Democrat
Served 1969-73. Wife filled vacancy after his death in office.
Edited by Tsenacomoco, Oct 10 2013, 09:04 PM.
|Excel||Oct 10 2013, 10:41 PM Post #8|
|Thanks Tsenacomoco for explaining that to me. So it was the good Radical Republicans who so early on tried to help.|
|Zut||Oct 10 2013, 10:51 PM Post #9|
Actually, a lot of them are more white than black... but are still considered as "black". That's the stupid American classification.
Augustus Freeman Hawkins. This man is as white as a normal european. Why would he be black?!?
|leucine||Oct 11 2013, 07:29 AM Post #10|
He has "known" SSA heritage. Here's the other thing that never gets mentioned. One mixed race people for whatever reason have always served as the black elite and black Americans show a high preference for mixed race people amongst themselves. You will rarely see a successful black male choose a darker less admixed woman as his trophy wife.
|Tsenacomoco||Oct 11 2013, 09:35 PM Post #11|
Yes. At that time the Republicans were the progressive party; for industrialization, expanded franchise, economic development, civil rights and against slavery. The fracturing of the Democratic party gave them a chance to move into power before the Civil War and create the Reconstruction Era. The splintering of the Republican party allowed the Democrats to move in and roll back all rights for blacks. They were a mostly Southern party and were for states' rights, agrarian economy and black subjugation.
They were of African descent and were socially black. Several of them were born into U.S. slavery.
What makes it stupid? We inherited it legitimately from our British forebears
He is not as white as a normal white American. Being of African descent on both sides of his family, having obviously black family members, being an African American culturally and ethnically, and being descended from slaves makes him not as "white" as a "normal European" or whites in his own society.
He is black because he is African American. All African Americans are black. He is African American because he is descended from American slaves, on both sides. He is black because he grew up in a black family and a black community. In his day whites couldn't have black family members, black grandparents, a black father. He is black because he identified as such and never disavowed his family or community in order to live life as a white man.
Edited by Tsenacomoco, Oct 11 2013, 09:44 PM.
|TheObserver||Oct 11 2013, 09:46 PM Post #12|
The mountain monster
|Black members, white members... all US politicians from the US are the same piece of #$%@!|
|Tsenacomoco||Oct 11 2013, 09:57 PM Post #13|
so we've finally achieved equality?
Edited by Tsenacomoco, Oct 11 2013, 10:03 PM.
|Tsenacomoco||Oct 12 2013, 08:13 PM Post #14|
They have historically been overrepresented in the black elite but have never made up the totality of it (in some places were the minority) and as can be observed through the photos of black Congresspeople over the years the "elite" have become more diverse over the generations.
"Whatever reason" is that various factors led to lighter and more mixed blacks being privileged throughout history in the U.S. A main factor was having a white male benefactor, far more likely if one's father is white, to provide freedom or education or simply a better position in the plantation hierarchy. Early on a system of white patronage was not uncommon and unmixed blacks made up the majority of the skilled enslaved classes, the free communities and the free tradesman. With more mixed children came a greater representation amongst those classes and throughout the 18th and 19th centuries laws and policies were put in place to limit privileges and manumissions granted to blacks eradicating the system of patronage and essentially limiting the recipients of such to women and their offspring from white fathers willing to fight an uphill battle. Within the pre-War elite classes people married across color lines but with the majority of them being of mixed descent, some were already indistinguishable from whites, and the continued input from white men as a group they remained light. The groups most privileged before and during the War period were the ones in position most often to assume leadership roles after the War. Education, social position, experience and connections were what got people elected, not color. Lack of such can leave a person open to accusations of lack of authenticity.
This politician was voted into office by black voters over this politician in part because he was dark complected and formerly enslaved (like the bulk of them) and the other man was fair complected, European featured and born free.
Whites also had (have) a preference for light blacks. Hiring practices have always been highly prejudiced and through the mid-20th Century they were blatant about wanting only lighter blacks, using coded wording in job announcements and specific instructions to recruiters. They same thing with Hollywood and the media. That representation has never been about realistically matching what blacks want to see or how they want to be portrayed (on multiple levels) but rather what the mainstream feels most comfortable with.
The larger the political, business, economic, educational, etc classes get the more diverse they get. A certain social elite may be overwhelmingly light but businessmen and politicians and educators aren't.
The preference for light blacks is overstated. Light-medium brown for women and medium-dark brown for men are perceived as most desirable on the ground.
Aside from athletes I don't think successful men are too much into the "trophy wife" thing, most in politics, academia, business choose women who are at least in the same ballpark intellectually. At least for first wives, lol. It is actually quite easy to find successful black men with black wives who are less mixed than them and black wives who are simply dark and less mixed in the absolute sense. Don't let the media dictate your perception, they don't like showcasing black wives/girlfriends period much less those who don't fit a certain look.
(toss up as to whether the right reverend is more an entertainer or a politician )
not rare at all
not hard to find
you might want to check out the wives of some of these Congressmen
you'll likely be surprised
Oh, and there's this guy
|Tsenacomoco||Oct 13 2013, 12:21 AM Post #15|
Fourth Generation of black members of the House of Representatives, 1971-present
Ronald Vernie Dellums of California, Democrat
Served 1971-1999. On Nixon’s shitlist.
Ralph Harold Metcalfe of Illinois, Democrat
Served 1971-1979. Died in office.
Parren James Mitchell of Maryland, Democrat
Served 1971 -1987. First black graduate of the formerly segregated University of Maryland. First black Congressman from Maryland.
Charles Bernard Rangel of New York, Democrat
Serves 1971-2015. First black Chair of the House Ways and Means Committee. Founding member of the Congressional Black Congress. Black Puerto Rican father.
Yvonne Brathwaite Burke of California, Democrat
Served 1973-1979. First black Congresswoman from the West Coast. First woman to serve as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus.
Barbara Charline Jordan of Texas, Democrat
Served 1973-1979. First black Texan in Congress.
Andrew Jackson Young of Georgia, Democrat
Served 1973-1979. First black Congressman from Georgia since 1871. Resigned to become US Ambassador to the UN.
Cardiss Hortense Collins of Illinois, Democrat
Served 1973-1997. Filled vacancy caused by her husband’s death. First black Congresswoman from the Midwest.
Harold Eugene Ford, Sr. of Tennessee, Democrat
Served 1975-1997. First black Congressman from Tennessee. Succeeded in office by his son.
Julian Carey Dixon of California, Democrat
|Tsenacomoco||Oct 13 2013, 04:19 PM Post #16|
William Herbert Gray III of Pennsylvania, Democrat
Served 1979-1993. Chair for the House Democratic Caucus and House Democratic Whip.
George Thomas “Mickey” Leland of Texas, Democrat
Served 1979-1991. Died in office.
Bennett McVey Stewart of Illinois, Democrat
George William Crockett, Jr. of Michigan, Democrat
Mervyn Malcolm Dymally of California, Democrat
Served 1981-1993. Of mixed Indo- and Afro-Trinidadian heritage.
Augustus Alexander Savage of Illinois, Democrat
Harold Lee Washington of Illinois, Democrat
Served 1981-1985. First black Mayor of Chicago.
Katie Beatrice Hall of Indiana, Democrat
Served 1981-1985. First black Congressperson from Indiana.
Major Robert Odell Owens of New York, Democrat
Edolphus Towns, Jr. of New York, Democrat
|Tsenacomoco||Oct 13 2013, 10:32 PM Post #17|
Alan Dupree Wheat of Missouri, Democrat
Charles Hayes of Illinois, Democrat
Alton R. Waldon, Jr. of New York, Democrat
Alphonso Michael Espy of Mississippi, Democrat
Served 1987-1995. Resigned to become Secretary of Agriculture. First black Congressman from Mississippi since 1883.
Floyd Harold Flake of New York, Democrat
John Robert Lewis of Georgia, Democrat
Serves 1987-2015. One of the top leaders of the American Civil Rights Movement. Served as Democratic Chief Whip and Democratic Chief Deputy Whip.
Kweisi Mfume ( born Frizzell Gerald Gray) of Maryland, Democrat
Served 1987-1997. Served as co-chair of the Democratic Policy Committee.
Donald Milford Payne of New Jersey, Democrat
Served 1989-2013. First black Congressman from New Jersey. Died in office and was succeeded by son.
Craig Anthony Washington of Texas, Democrat
Served 1989-1995. Elected to fill vacancy caused by death of Mickey Leland.
Barbara-Rose Collins of Michigan, Democrat
Served 1991-1997. First black Congresswoman from Michigan.
|TheObserver||Oct 15 2013, 05:28 AM Post #18|
The mountain monster
Yeah, either blacks and whites are equally despicable for politics all around the world.
|Tsenacomoco||Oct 15 2013, 04:45 PM Post #19|
Martin Luther King, Jr. would be so proud.
I'm pretty sure he preached something about equality of corruption in politics. Probably in the I have A Dream speech. He hoped one day black politicians and white politicians could sit together... and develop plans to fleece not only the American people, but meddle in politics the world over.
|TheObserver||Oct 15 2013, 08:27 PM Post #20|
The mountain monster
Hahaha! Yeah, probably...
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