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Arabian clusters of haplogroup E1b1b1c1 (M34)
Topic Started: Nov 19 2010, 02:43 PM (2,456 Views)
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Arabian clusters of haplogroup E1b1b1c1 (M34)

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The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy: Vol 1, №2, 2010
ISSN: 1920-2989 http://ru.rjgg.org © All rights reserved RJGG
12
Arabian clusters of haplogroup
E1b1b1c1 (M34)
A.A. Aliev,
D.L. Tartakovsky

Link

http://rjgg.molgen.org/index.php/RJGG/article/view/60/75

Abstract
Haplogroup E1b1b1c1* (M34) and its subclade E1b1b1c1a* (M84) were detected among the Arabs in the Arabian
Peninsula. A possible reason for migration of the founder of cluster E1b1b1c1a-E from the Levant to the Arabian
Peninsula could be the Crusades.
Theme talk
The highest diversity of subclades of haplogroup
E1b1b1c1 (M34) is observed in the
Levant and Anatolia, therefore its ancestral
home is often placed in the Eastern Mediterranean
[1, 2, 3]. In addition, haplogroup
E1b1b1c1* (M34) and its subclade E1b1b1c1a*
(M84) were detected among the Arabs in the
Arabian Peninsula [4, 5], where they form specific
clusters — E1b1b1c1-B [6] and E1b1b1c1a-
E [7]. Knowing the age of the clusters and
their area of distribution, we can find out the
history of clusters’ origin and resettlement of
their carriers. In this paper we will try to find
out the history of E1b1b1c1 and E1b1b1c1a
subclades in the Arabian Peninsula on the example
of these clusters.
Arabian clusters: when and why?
To find out the origin of the clusters, let us
define their ages with the probability of 95% according
to [8]. At the time of writing the paper
(July 2010) cluster E1b1b1c1-B has had only two
67-marker haplotypes (N=2). Obviously, due
to such a small number of haplotypes, their
TMRCA (time to most recent ancestor) is “too
young” and is 350±320 years, and gives us no
reason to draw any definite conclusion about the
history of its origin.
The sample of cluster E1b1b1c1a*-E consists
of five 67-marker haplotypes. This cluster’s
TMRCA is 1090±510 years.
Despite the fact that, due to different size of
samples, the ages of these clusters’ founders are
different, it should examine the entire period
of their confidence intervals, which are intersected.
It is possible that both clusters have arisen
in about the same medieval era and are
linked to the migration of their founders from
the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula according to
some important event. What could cause this migration?
We think that a possible cause of the medieval
migrations from the Levant could be the Crusades
— a series of Western invasions to oust
the Muslims from Palestine, which lasted almost
two hundred years (1096 - 1272 years).
The first crusade ended with the capture of
Jerusalem and the massacre of Muslims [9].
Apparently, these invasions, and, as a result
of them, looting and killings, forced part
of the Muslims to seek refuge from persecution
of the Crusaders closer to Mecca. This, in
our view, could cause to arise at least one cluster
of Arabia — E1b1b1c1a-E.
__________________________________________________ ___________
Received: July 16 2010; accepted: July 18 2010; published: July 19 2010
Correspondence: absheron@gmail.com
The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy: Vol 1, №2, 2010
ISSN: 1920-2989 http://ru.rjgg.org © All rights reserved RJGG
13

Conclusions
1) Carriers of subclades E1b1b1c1* (M34)
and E1b1b1c1a (M84) identified in the Arabian
Peninsula, where they form clusters
E1b1b1c1-B and E1b1b1c1a-E.
2) The TMRCA of cluster E1b1b1c1*-B is
50±320 years ago, the TMRCA of cluster
E1b1b1c1a*-E is 1090±510 years ago. They possibly
arose at one time.
3) A possible reason for migration of the
founder of cluster E1b1b1c1a-E from the Levant
to the Arabian Peninsula could be the Crusades.
References

1. C. Cinnioğlu et al. (2003), «Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype
strata in Anatolia». Hum Genet (2004) 114 : 127-
148. DOI 10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4
2. Mirvat El-Sibai, Daniel E. Platt, Marc Haber, Yali Xue, Sonia
C. Youhanna, R. Spencer Wells, Hassan Izaabel, May F.
Sanyoura, Haidar Harmanani, Maziar Ashrafian A. Bonab,
Jaafar Behbehani, Fuad Hashwa, Chris Tyler-Smith, Pierre
A. Zalloua. Geographical Structure of the Y-chromosomal
Genetic Landscape of the Levant: a coastal-inland contrast.
Annals of human genetics, 2009.
3. A. A. Aliev, Bob Del Turco. Modern carriers of haplogroup
E1b1b1c1 (M34) are the descendants of the ancient Levantines.
Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy. Vol 1,
2010.
4. Haplozone E3b, Arabian E-Y-DNA Project, Arab DNA
Project.
5. Cadenas et al. (2007), «Y-chromosome diversity characterizes
the Gulf of Oman», European Journal of Human Genetics
16: 1–13, doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201934
6. E1b1b1c1*-B cluster
7. E1b1b1c1a*-E cluster
8. Адамов Д. Расчет возраста общего предка по мужской
линии для «чайников». The Russian Journal of Genetic
Genealogy (Русская версия), Том 2, №1, 2010 г.
9. Раймунд Ажильский, История франков, которые взяли
Иерусалим (Raimundi de Aguiliers. Historia Francorum
qui ceperunt Iherusalem) в кн. «История крестовых по-
ходов в документах и материалах», М., 1975
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