|The White Races according to Earnest Hooton; "The Twilight of Man", 1939.|
|Topic Started: Sep 21 2010, 10:16 PM (2,947 Views)|
|Crimson Guard||Sep 21 2010, 10:16 PM Post #1|
From "The Twilight of Man", 1939.
Within this White group by far the most primitive race is the archaic Australoid, which probably reached the antipodal continent before the end of the Pleistocene or glacial period over an island route which presented fewer wide gaps than it now does. These aboriginal Australians are reminiscent of fossil types of man in their huge brow ridges, low and receding foreheads, protrusive jaws, feeble chins, large palates, and big teeth. They have exaggeratedly broad and fleshy-tipped noses adoring extremely short broad faces, and their skins vary from a medium red-brown to a dark chocolate color(in exposed parts). However, their hair is not woolly or frizzly, but usually wavy; and, although of a generally dark brown to black shade, in some groups it is frequently tawny or gingerish in children and adolescents. The adult males have abundant beards and heavy body hair. The brain cases are small and very narrow relative to their lenght(dolichocephalic). This race is usually of medium stature, but the trunk is often relatively short and the legs long, with meager, Negroidal shanks. The Australian race is probably not, as some think, an unmixed remnant of the men of the Old Stone Age, but is rather an archaic White type which has been modified in a slightly Negroid direction by mixture with its predecessors in the Australian continent--the now extinct Tasmanians. These latter appear to have been a very primitive stock with even darker skins and with wooly or frizzly hair. They probably represented early pygmy Negritos-first migrants in the Antipodes-who subsequently received some accretions of Australoid blood. Apparently the pure Australian strains, found in the west and south of Australia, include more heavily set and hairy men than the central and northern Australians, who lack the Negroid shanks and the deeper shades of skin color of the latter groups, and more frequently display blondness. In the far north of Australia, neighboring New Guinea, definitely Negroid traits are seen as a result of mixture with the Papuans and Melanesians(Oceanic Negroids). The Harvard-Adelaide Expedition, now engaged in studies of physical anthropology in Australia, has recently discovered in refuge area back of Cairns, Queensland, a very short-statured or pygmoid group probably derived from the earliest of all Australian inhabitants--people with bulbous foreheads, yellow skins, broad noses, convex upper lips, and prognathous jaws; in fact, very close to the Negritos of inner New Guinea, and surely related to the Tasmanians.
Much less primitive than the Australians, but still representative of the more archaic elements in the White division of mankind, is the Ainu race, domiciled in the islands to the north of Japan, the outlying remnant of an ancient population stratum which probably extended at one time across Siberia into Europe. They usually called the "Hairy Ainu" because the men can boast of the most luxuriant beards and the furriest bodies to be found in the human species. The head hair is dark brown to black and wavy in form. The eyes are dark brown, and the skin, where visible through the hair, a dirty white. The Ainu are a short, sturdily built people. Their heads are long and relatively, but not absolutely, narrow. They have far more capacious brain cases than the Australians, almost equally short faces, but foreheads which are not inordinately sloping and brow ridges which, though well developed, are not enormous. The jaws of the Ainu show comparatively little projection, although the palates are large and the teeth strong and well formed. The root of the nose is deeply depressed, and this organ is broad and fleshy, but not notably low-bridged. The lips are of moderate thickness the ears of the long European type with well developed lobes. These Aninu, who posses a very primitive culture, seem to me to be closer in physical type to the men who inhabited the caves of Europe during the last of the glacial period and who are associated with naturalistic cave art, than is any other contemporaneous group. The Ainu are definitely related to the Australians, but they represent a more highly evolved and relatively unpigmented type, without suspicion of Negrito admixture. Strains of Aninu race blood are to be found in eastern Europe, especially in Russia, where the novelist Tolstoy was a notorious double for a typical Aninu. However, in Russian the head form commonly associated with this type is round, or brachycephalic, and the features of the face are somewhat more refined than in the true Ainu.
Apart from these two archaic and vestigial stocks, the most ancient and far-flung White race is that which is usually called Mediterranean. It occupies most of the basin of that inland sea and sends outliers northwestward in Europe to the British Isles, down through the Sahara Desert, and eastward as far as India and farther. This race is fundamentally very dark brunet white or light brown in skin color, has black or dark brown hair and dark eyes, and is dolichocephalic, or long-headed( head breath in the living less than 77 percent of the head length). The form of the hair varies from slight wave to loose curl, and the growth on the face and on the body is scantly. The face is usually oval, sometimes rather long and narrow, more rarely shortish and square. There is little or no jaw protrusion, and the teeth and palate are small. The nose is usually narrow and high-bridges with a thin tip; it may be straight, convex, or aquiline with a delicate depressed tip; it is occasionally rather infantile, somewhat blobby, and slightly
concave. Stature in this group is prevailingly medium to short, but some subraces tall. Slender body builds are almost invariable.
This basic Eur-African, brunet, long-headed race must be divided into several subraces. The first of these is the Classic Mediterranean, as exemplified in ancient and modern Egyptian, many Arabs, Berbers, Italians, Spaniards and some Britons. This subrace is characterized by short to medium stature, slender build, smoothness and gracility of the contours of bones of head, face, postcranial skeleton; forehead of medium height, somewhat rounded and with sub-medium to moderate slope; eyebrow ridges feebly developed; cheekbones flat; nose straight, narrow, and of medium height; chin pointed and not very prominent; light brown to brunet white complexion; hair often deeply waved and sometimes curly, face elongated oval in shape.
A somewhat more primitive variety, or subrace, may be distinguished as the Crude Mediterranean type. The bony contours are more rugged and angular, the brow ridges larger, the face shorter and squarer with more protruding cheekbones and jaw angles, the nose broader and lower with slight tendency toward concavity of the bridge, the chin less prominent but squarer and often cleft, beard and body hair somewhat less sparse.
Another Mediterranean subrace may be designated as the Arabo-Mediterranean. It shows most of the gracility of the Classic type, but tends to be slightly taller, with longer face and very high-bridged, narrow nose, usually beaked or aquiline, with thin and depressed tip. The chin is pointed but juts strongly forward. Pigmentation is very dark.
Finally we have the Atlanto-Mediterranean subrace of this great stock, which is much taller and rather more heavily built. The skeleton is more rugged and the face is especially long, with a heavy bilateral chin. The nose is straight or convex; the cheekbones and jaw angles moderately pronounced. This type is usually very white in skin color and sometimes shows a ruddy tinge. The hair and eyes are dark.
Closely allied with these last two varieties of the Mediterranean race, the Arabo-Mediterranean and Atlanto-Mediterranean subraces, is another physical type which perhaps should receive separate racial classification, on a parity with the great Mediterranean race. This type, recently distinguished by Dr. Henry Field's researches in Iran and Iraq, may be called provisionally the Iranian Plateau race.
In pigmentation, stature, and body build it is not distinguishable from the medium varieties of the Mediterranean race. It is outstanding, however, in its very large, extremely dolichocephalic head with markedly protuberant occiput, high sloping forehead, and strong brow ridges. Its most characteristic feature is great nasality. The nasal bones just out strongly from beneath the overhanging gabella. They are high, moderately broad, and hooked. The nasal tip is depressed and of thin to medium thickness. The cheekbones, or malars, are prominent and the face, which is elongated, has a strong chin and noticeable jaw angles. The beard and body hair in this type are very strongly developed. This Iranian Plateau race, with its specialized and hereditary dominant features of the nasal skeleton and the external nose, is particularly strongly represented in Persia and Mesopotamia, but extends into northwestern India. It now seems probable that most of the convex and hooked noses, which are so common in the Near East and have diffused from that area, are due to this Iranian Plateau stock, which has passed on these features in many mixtures with other racial groups.
The Nordic race is certainly a depigmented offshoot from the basic long-headed Mediterranean stock. It deserves separate racial classification only because its blond hair(ash or golden), its pure blue or gray eyes, and its pink or ruddy skin indicate that it is the result of a radical mutation toward suppression of pigment, fixed by a long process of inbreeding and selection in an isolated area. This area of differentiation is almost certainly the great steppe region approximately north of the Aral Sea. The only other alternative is the Scandinavian region, which seems rather to be a refuge area and only a secondary center of fixation and distribution of the Nordic race. Of course, the Baltic region is the present focus of the Nordic habitat and diffusion, but it seem probably that the Nordic race developed in Late Paleolithic times before the Scandinavian peninsula was free of the ice sheet.
Moderate to fairly tall stature and robust framework are characteristic of this face. The head is sometimes frankly dolichocephalic, but more often mesocephalic,( of medium breath in relation to its length) because its breadth has increased, as contrasted with most Mediterranean races, and its length is sometimes slightly diminished. The face is longish, the cheekbones usually flat but sometimes fairly prominent, the nose prevailingly straight, high-bridged, and thin, but occasionally arched. The chin is often heavy and prominent. Subvarieties include a gracile type which is like the Mediterranean except in pigmentation, but larger, with slightly more elongated face and longer, thinner nose. This is the ash-blond, pale blue or gray-eyed, flat-cheeked type with a rather weak and usually pointed chin. A taller, stronger, more ruggedly built variety is the golden-blond, blue-eyed type with heavier brow ridges; more sloping forehead; outstanding cheekbones; square jaws; long, deep, bilateral chin; and prominent, often convex nose. Apart from pigmentation, its morphological similarities to parallel Mediterranean types lie particularly with the Atlanto-Mediterranean subrace, but it also has affinities with the brunet Iranian Plateau race.
The basic differentiation of the White division toward round-headedness, or brachycephaly(relation to breadth of head to length in the living 82 percent or over), is the Alpine race. This type almost certainly developed on the western slopes of the central Asiatic Plateau, probably in the neighborhood of the Hindu Kush and the Pamirs. Its diffusion westward occurred somewhat later than that of the blond, long-headed Nordics. The Alpine race is nearly as brunet in pigmentation as the Mediterranean race, but dark brown hair and light or medium brown eyes are probably commoner. The body build is medium to short, but broad and rotund, with stumpy extremities and long trunk. Hair form is only slightly wavy and often straight, the hair somewhat coarser than in Mediterraneans. Body and beard hair are much more heavily developed than in Mediterranean or Nordic races and comparable with, or superior to, that found in the Iranian Plateau race. The head is globular with a steep occiput; the neck is short and thick. The forehead is broad, high, and often steep; the temples bulging. Brow ridges are moderately to heavily developed. The nose is rather short, broad, and fleshy in the tip and bridge, but of medium height and usually straight. Although the face is wide and the cheeks full, the malars, or cheekbones, do not appear unduley prominent because of the great breadth of the head and an actual lack of size development and jut in the cheekbones themselves. The jaws are square at the hinder angles in the thinner-faced types, but may appear rounded in fat-faced individuals. The chin is well developed, but may be either pointed or bilateral. Lips are moderate in thickness--fuller than those of the Nordic and perhaps a little thinner than those observed in most Mediterraneans. The palate is broad and short. This Alpine race has obvious Aninu affinities, but differs from that race in its round head, in its lesser hirsuteness, and in a greater refinement of facial features associated with broader, squatter body build.
There are other round-headed types which belong to the White division, and especially we may note the brunet, sugar-loaf-headed beaky Armenoids, the tall, long-faced, hook-nosed Dinarics, and the square-headed, ash-blond, saddle-nosed East Baltics. As I consider that all these belong in the category of secondary, or composite, races, or indeed are merely hybrid types, I shall discuss them under the subject of mixtures between allied races.
Within this great White division of mankind I have recognized the following principal races: Australoid, Aninu, Mediterranean, Iranian Plateau, Nordic, and Alpine. These I regard as primarily races in the sense it seems probably that they have differentiated from a common stock, each through inbreeding, the selection of germinal variations, mutations, and environmental adaptations, rather than through intermixture. Secondary races, are, on contrary, composite groups which have arisen through the crossing of two or more primarily races, followed by a period of inbreeding in isolation during which a stabilized physical type emerges from the blending of the racial features of the parent strains. The order in which these primary races of the White division have been enumerated is quite probably that of their development and diffusion. The Australoid race represents the retention of the most primitive and archaic features and it almost certainly the oldest and first in order of diffusion of this division. It must have been evolved well before the end of the Pleistocene or glacial period, and it seems probable that its continued evolution has been retarded or stopped in the present-day Australian, either through their isolation in an island continent, which seems to have had a repressive or inhibiting effect upon mammalian evolution, or for other reasons which we do not understand. It is probably a fact familiar to all of you that Australia contains no indigenous mammals above the level of the pouched marsupials, with the exception of man and the dingo dog, which presumably accompanied him in his migration thither. Traces of Australoid-like fossil types occur in South Africa and in the Upper Paleolithic or late glacial deposits of Europe, as well as in Palestine and in Java. They will be found, no doubt, in many other areas of the Old World as excavations proceed. It is impossible at present to fix the area of differentiation of this ancient race--it may have been anywhere from the Indian peninsula westward to the Syrian and Palestinian coasts of the Mediterranean. The Ainu race seems to represent the further evolution of this same type in northeastern Asia and is even closer to the Late Paleolithic types of man found in Europe than are the Australians. The Mediterranean race is surely a further evolution and refinement of this same basic stock, of which the center of characterization appears to have been Mesopotamia, whence it spread in all directions. The Iranian Plateau race may have arisen in that area by mutations of Aninu-like proto-race, particularly effecting nasalization. The depigmentation which characterizes the Nordic stock must have taken pl;ace, again, as a result of mutations in the steppe region northeast of the Caspian. Probably the latest racial mutant in this division was toward round-headedness, or brachycephaly, a phenomenon which seemingly occurred on the western slopes of the Tibetan Plateau, resulting in the formation of the Alpine race.
However, these racial developments in the White stock interdigitated with evolutionary trends which gave origin to two other great divisions of mankind, each with its own quota of racial differentiae.
COMPOSITE WHITE RACES
The Armenoid Race
The term "Armenoid race," popularized by the German anthropologist, von Luschan, has been widely employed to designate an easily recognizable physical type which is at home in Anatolia and is represented by many immigrants in eastern Europe, central Europe, and elsewhere. There has also grown up the anthropological habit of referring to eastern and central European Jews who have hooked noses and round heads as "Armenoid Jews," on the assumption that they are, for most part, descendants of persons belong to the Armenoid race who had been converted to Judaism. The conventional description of the Armenoid race is as follows: body build is medium to broad, and stature medium or below medium; skin is olive colored or yellowish white, hair black or very dark brown; eyes dark brown to light brown. Head hair is slightly wavy but often straight; body hair is abundant, and eyebrows and beards are especially thick. The eyebrows often meet over the root of the nose. The head is of a peculiar shape--very flat at the back and rising to a peak from a long sloping forehead; it is pronouncedly brachycephalic, by virtue of very abbreviated length and considerable width. The face has rather prominent cheekbones, but is, on the whole, of medium width and length. Brow ridges are moderately developed. The nose is remarkable for its convexity and the length and fleshiness of its drooping tip. This tip is frequently rather oblong in shape and dips below its attachment to the humped bony nasal bridge, thus creating an undulating profile. The lips are of moderate to full development, the chin usually of medium size and pointed, but considerably overshadowed by the projection of the nose. The jaw angles are sharp, but the hinder width of the jaw is not excessive. Studies of Armenians and Syrians by some of the younger Harvard anthropologists--Carl Seltzer, Waler Cline, and Byron Hughes--have recently proved that the so-called Armenoid race is really a rather unstable blend of several different racial elements which have interbred in the Near East. It is doubtful whether it deserves classification as a secondary, or composite, race; it is more in the nature of a subrace. Unpublished researches of Dr. Byron Hughes on some 1500 adult male Armenians residing in the United States and upon a considerable number of first-generation Americans of Armenian parentage have cleared up the Armenian racial problem quite conclusively. The type varies markedly in different regions of Armenia, apparently according to the varying proportions of the racial constituents which are in the blend. These are ordinary brunet long-headed Mediterraneans with dark skins and curly hair, round-headed brunet Alpines with square faces and blobby noses and thickset build; the brunet dolichocephalic Iranian Plateau race, recently isolated by Dr. Henry Field, with a final dash of blond, long-headed, horse-faced, fair-skinned and blue-eyed Nordics. The least important and least constant element in the blend is the Nordic strain. When present, it has the effect of elevating stature, modifying the dark eyes to mixed and often greenish tints, and possibly of elongating the face.
The Armenoid head form seems to be the result of the survival of Alpine brachycephaly, perhaps modified to some extent by artificial flattening of the back of the head due to their method of cradling infants. The baby is tightly swathed and laid upon its back so that the occiput rests upon a fairly soft cushion. Whether this practice actually deforms and flattens the back of the head is still a matter of argument. It probably has that effect, at any rate, upon malnourished or rickety individuals in whom the cranial bones are soft and lack resilience. This flattening is apparently diminished in the American-born children of Armenian parents. It is possible, of course, that the Armenoid sugar-loaf skull may have been derived by a disharmonic combination of the short head of the brachycephalic Alpine with the high and moderately wide heads found in the Iranian Plateau stock and in the rugged Atlanto-Mediterranean subrace which seems to be a variant of the smaller Mediterranean long-headed brunet race. The Armenoid nose, which comes in a good many forms, seems to have been inherited mainly from that f the Iranian Plateau race, but the tip has been thickened and the alae spread by influence of the Alpine strain, which has a short, fleshy nose. The heavy beard and body hair are present in both the Alpine and Iranian Plateau races, and it is expected that they should survive in the blend.
The Dinaric Race
Another Subrnce which has been frequently discussed is that which Deniker has called the Dinaric race. Its center of distribution is in Yugoslavia, but it has ramifications into Switzerland, the Austrian Tyrol, and neighboring regions. This race is remarkable for very tall stature, brachycephaly, long convex noses, and deep faces with heavy chins. Pigmentation is usually brunet-white as to skin color, and brown or black as to their color--but there is a considerable variation toward mixed and light eyes and medium to light hair tints. In the Dinaric head is very high and relatively short, but perhaps it is not so strongly peaked as in the Armenoid. The face is much longer and more massive, the nose rather more finely cut and perhaps thinner in the tip; the chin is heavier and projects farther forward. Body and beard hair in these Dinarics are ordinarily heavily developed. The dominant strains in this mixed type are Iranian Plateau, Alpine, and Nordic; but the Nordic seems much more heavily represented than it is in the Armenoid subrace. The great stature, facial elongation, and comparatively light pigmentation often observed in skin, hair and eyes, seem to be due to a strong Nordic component, or perhaps to hybrid vigor. The extreme brachycephaly is presumably derived from the Alpine strain, although it is rather puzzling to find the cephalic index in this type even higher than in the Alpine race itself. Combinations quite indistinguishable from this Dinaric race are found as group or individual variations wherever these same White strains occur in mixtures.
The Keltic Subrace
In Scotland, Ireland, and to a lesser extent in England, Wales, and Cornwall, there occurs a very tall, long-headed type with a long, compressed face, high narrow nose, deep jaws, and a curiously disharmonic pigment combination. The hair is usually very dark brown, sometimes black, and wavy or even curly. Beard and body hair are moderately developed. The skin color is light and occasionally very florid; the eyes are usually deep blue. Very frequently in this type the hair is red and the eyes are greenish. It is easy enough to get at the derivation of these Keltic types, because the parent strains are abundantly present in the same area. They are, on one hand, the conventional Nordic type--dolichocephalic, blond as to hair and blue or gray as to eye color--on the other, an even taller, longer-headed, brunet stock with curly or wavy hair, the Atlanto-Mediterranean subrace. Into this mixture also go some of the smaller brunet, long-headed strains as exemplified in the Cockney Englishmen and in the Classic Mediterranean type of Spain, Italy, and North Africa. Why the pigmentation linkage should have broken down in the British Isles so that the blue eyes are combined with dark hair is difficult to explain. A similar combination occurs in Brittany, where, however, the head form and body build seem to have been derived from an Alpine strain. In this case body build is blocky and heads are round.
I am accustomed to designate these tall dolicocephalic brunets with blue eyes, and the corresponding redheads, as Keltics, because these types are most characteristically found in the areas where Keltic languages still survive--especially Irish and Scotch, or Gaelic, the older Keltic dialects. Red Hair seems to be the result of the crossing of a feebly pigmented blond stock, with hair containing only melanotic pigment and a little red-gold pigment, and of a black-haired or dark-brown-haired stock in which the melanotic pigment masks the presence of red-gold pigment in considerable quantity. Then, occasionally, as a result of some process of Mendelian segregation, the red-gold pigment appears in individuals in a double dose, with the ordinarily black or melanotic pigment either absent or but feebly represented.
East Baltic Race
In Finland, Poland, and the Baltic states there dwells a well differentiated and stabilized physical type which is usually called the " East Baltic Race." The most outstanding feature of this type is its feeble pigmentation of skin, hair, and eyes. The hair is tow-color, or almost white, more rarely a pale yellow; the eyes gray or light blue; the skin tawny white or rosy white, but more usually the former. The head hair is straight, and the body hair usually somewhat spare. Stature is medium to tall, and the body build is ordinarily thickset. The head is very brachycephalic and somewhat flat at the back, whence the nickname "square-heads." Foreheads are high and rather vertical, always of considerable breath. Brow are not large. The face seems very square because the cheekbones are prominent and the jaw angles flaring. The chin is usually well developed. The nose tends to be rather broad and low; often it has a concave profile and the tip is short, so that the nostrils are roundish and directed forward. A long upper lip and some alveolar prognathism, thin membranous lips, and a flattish face frequently characterize this type.
Anthropologists are considerably perplexed about the origin of the East Baltic race. A common opinion attributes it to a cross of the blond, long-headed Nordic race with the brunet, round-headed Alpine race. The assumption is that the blondness comes from the Nordics and the brachycephaly and the blocky body build from the Alpines. I am afraid this theory has been influenced by the presupposition that blondness is exclusively the property of the Nordic race, and when found elsewhere must be the result of intermixture with that race. The difficultly is that the East Baltics are actually blonder than the original Nordics, whereas blondness in inheritance seems recessive and ought to survive in East Baltic crosses, as elsewhere, only in an attenuated, mixed pigmental form. Of course, it may be argued that the Baltic environment tends to select blondness for survival, so that once it crops out as a mutation the sunless climate tends to preserve it and to cause rapid increase of persons exhibiting this condition. However, if this argument is advanced, it is hard to refute the contention that Baltic blondness could have originated in any stock domiciled for a considerable portion in that habitat, whether it happened to be long-headed or round-head. Although there is actually of evidence of the admixture of the blond, long-headed Nordic Swedes with the round-heads of Finland, it seems highly improbable that all of the East Baltic brachycephals could have derived their blondness from this source.
The suggestion that Lapp blood is heavily represented in the Finns and Scandinavians is usually violently repudiated by the anthropologists of those nations. The Lapps are a people who have remained at a somewhat primitive state of culture, partially, no doubt, because of the limited natural resources of their far northern habitat. They speak an Asiatic language belonging to the Ural-Altaic family. However, Finnish is also a non-Indo-European or non-Aryan language which stems from the same great linguistic family. The Lapps are very short and brachycephalic, with straight dark hair, dark eyes, and yelllowish skins. Cheekbones have an almost Mongoloid prominence; eyes are often slitlike and oblique; and the nose is concave and low in the bridge. However, the Lapps by no means represent a fully developed Mongoloid type. One can say that they are either proto-Mongoloid or mixed Mongoloid; but , on the whole, Mongoloid features are usually attenuated and frequently absent. If it were not for the blondness of the Finns, they could be explained by the hypothesis of a mixture between the brachycephalic Lapps and the brachycephalic Alpines, resulting in longer faces, increased stature, and the adulteration of the Mongoloid featural tendencies which the Lapps present. However, the fact remains that they are indubitably blond--in fact, blond almost to the verge of albinism. If we add a Nordic element to the cross, we still have a good deal more of blondness and considerable less of other Nordic traits than might be expected to survive--such as the thin, high-bridged nose, and possibly the tall, slender body build. I do not feel at all certain of the answer to this problem, but I am sure that all three of these racial elements have gone into the production of the East Baltic type and that the Alpine and Lapp strains are probably considerably stronger than the Nordic. An ordinary Nordic-Alpine cross, such as is common enough in western and central Europe, does not produce a type which is identical with the East Baltic. It is likely to result in mixed or near-blond pigmentation and a round head, but in pseudo-Mongoloid cheekbones and nose. My own suggestion is that the East Baltic blondness is due to physiological disturbance set up primarily by mixture between Alpines and Lapps, and selected for multiplication and survival by the Baltic climate. Of course such blondness has been reinforced by some infusion of Nordic blood, but the origin of the Nordic blondness is, in itself, somewhat of a mystery. It is certain that Nordic is a derivative from a dolichocephalic brunet type, which stems back to the Upper Paleolithic times and is fundamentally a variant of the basic European long-heads.
Edited by Crimson Guard, May 26 2011, 09:48 PM.
|1 user reading this topic (1 Guest and 0 Anonymous)|
|« Previous Topic · Physical Anthropology · Next Topic »|