|Cuban DNA Project|
|Topic Started: May 29 2010, 03:32 AM (10,701 Views)|
|Euskal kubatarrak||May 29 2010, 03:32 AM Post #1|
Cuba DNA Project
Y-DNA Test Results (Alleles) for Project Members
* Haplogroups in green have been confirmed by SNP testing. Haplogroups in red have been predicted by Family Tree DNA based on unambiguous results in the individual's personal page. This has been placed on this GAP page for your ease and convenience. Please note that for any predicted results we see no reason for ordering a SNP test to confirm the Haplogroup. If a "-" is in the HAPLO field then we feel that the the comparative results are not clear and unambiguous and if the kit holder wants to know their SNP with 100% confidence they may consider ordering a SNP confirmation test.
Well if anyone nows how to post that table here, be my guest please.
Now I know R1B1 is Euro. But can someone tell me the rest, at least the ones that appear here. Like J is middle east, but what about G.
There are 140 Samples of Y-dna:
65 are R1b1
5 are R1a1
3 are J1
1 is J1b
10 are J2
1 is Q1
3 are Q1a3a
5 are I
5 are I1
5 are I2a
2 are I2b1
1 is I2b
21 are E1b1
2 are E
6 are T
1 is O
1 is O2
6 are C
3 are G
2 are G2a3a
1 is G2a.
Now family of Y-DNA Haplogroups we have
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 29 2010, 03:56 AM.
|Euskal kubatarrak||May 29 2010, 03:52 AM Post #2|
Now Mt-DNA. This one doesn't say anything about results in green or red. So I don't know.
There are 128 Samples. The Mt-DNA Haplogroups are:
26 are A
2 are A2
6 are B
9 are C
3 are D
1 is D1
12 are H
3 are H1
2 are H14
1 is H3
1 is H6a
1 is H7
1 is HV
1 is I1a
8 are J
1 is J2a2
1 is J2b1
1 is K
1 is K1a
1 is K1b1a
1 is K2b
1 is L0a1
5 are L1b
1 is L1b1a
1 is L1c2
6 are L2a
1 is L2c
1 is L3e1b
1 is L3e2
5 are L3e2b
1 is L3e3
2 are L3f
1 is L3g
1 is M
2 are T2
1 is T2b
2 are U4
1 is U5
1 is U5b1
1 is U6
1 is U6a7
2 are U6b1
3 are V
4 are W
So overall there are:
28-A (Including a Taino and a Central American)(Pastora Muro, sagua b. Cuba abt. 1810 (Taino),Henrietta Bettencourt Belize, Central America )
4-K (Found this on the K: Teodora Yunez, c.1880, Tabarja, Lebanon )
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 29 2010, 03:52 AM.
|Euskal kubatarrak||May 29 2010, 03:59 AM Post #3|
So there you go people, broke it down for you. Now do your magic!!! I know R1 is Euro, but what is J, supposedly E1b is african, but I don't know. Is C in Y-DNA HP Native American. If you could like group them in like African: . European:. Asian/Native American:.
Samething for Mt-DNA
Crimson, I want to analyze this statistics. Help me out. I know some of the basics Haplogroups but I don't them all.
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 29 2010, 04:01 AM.
|Euskal kubatarrak||May 29 2010, 04:14 AM Post #4|
The Ts are what??
I'm not in that list BTW.
So Mt-DNA HP wise there are:
48-Total (28A, 6B, 9C, 4D)
That is 37.5% Of the total sample of 128 Mt-DNA
Which Y-DNA are native american??
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 29 2010, 04:19 AM.
|Euskal kubatarrak||May 29 2010, 04:52 AM Post #5|
Well, here in the US family trees maybe no so much, as some people tended to move around and change their names, the passing as white required that. In other countries, such as Cuba and Spain, and think is pretty reliable.
|Euskal kubatarrak||May 29 2010, 05:08 AM Post #6|
Ok so let me continue analyzing mt-DNA
Native American: 48-Total (28A, 6B, 9C, 4D) 37.5% of total sample
Sub-saharan african: 26 L-Total 20.3125% of total sample
1 M (Could be African/ Asian/ or Middle Eastern M is found in all those places) 27 Total (26 L, 1M) 21.09375%
European: 54 total(21H,1I,10J,4K,3T,8U,3V,4W) 42.1875% of total sample
I want to point out that Mt-DNA V is purely Iberian.
Among the oldest mtDNA haplogroups found in European remains of Homo sapiens is U5
Haplogroup U6 was named 'Ulla' by Bryan Sykes. It is common (around 10% of the people) in North Africa (with a maximum of 29% in Algerian Berbers) and the Canary Islands (18%). It is also found in the Iberian peninsula, where it has the highest diversity (10 out of 19 sublineages are only found in this region and not in Africa)
Q1 looks like it could be Asian, while Q1a3a is Native American
C-Is Native American
O is asian, or indonesian.
Native American/Asian: 13 (4Q, 6C,3O) 9.29% of total sample
North African: 23 E(21E1,2E) 16.42% of total sample
European/Middle East: 111 (70 R1, 11J, 18I,6 T, 6 G) 79.3% of total sample
Some interesting facts:
R1b(65 People) is the most frequently occurring Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe
R1a(5 People) The R1a1* paragroup is apparently less rare than R1* but still relatively unusual, though it has been tested in more than one survey. Underhill et al. for example report 1/51 in Norway, 3/305 in Sweden, 1/57 Greek Macedonians, 1/150 Iranians, 2/734 Ethnic Armenians, and 1/141 Kabardians
I2(8 People) Highest frequencies I2a2 Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, I2a1 Sardinia , Basques, Serbs; I2b1 Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, England
I1(10 People) Highest frequencies People of Northern Europe (Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Finnish, Sami, Estonian, German, Dutch, English, Scottish, Irish), French
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, Jun 4 2010, 05:08 AM.
|Euskal kubatarrak||May 29 2010, 03:05 PM Post #7|
Yes and no, Cuba's Population was less than 6000 people as far as early 1600s. Cuba's Native Population, had arrive in Cuba less than 500 years before the Spanish arrived. I'm not certain if is 500 years o more, but my point is that they hadn't been there long. Some estimates the native population to be in the 200,000 people, some even said it reached 500,000, although most historians agree in 200,000 people. By 1554 or even before than in 1534, there were only 3000 o less native people left. Some mixing did occur in the 1500s, because most of the people in Cuba were soldiers rather than civilians. Cuba was almost abandoned once in the early 1600s, if it wasn't because Spain authorized bringing slaves, to boost up the economy, It would have been long gone. The major's influx of Cuba's Population, came after the 1600's mostly Canary Islander's, some white spanish settlers from Jamaica in 1623 I think, when it fell at the hands of the English. The native people, which were actually divided in two, the taino's(who are descendant of the arawak(not sure if it is spell this way) people) and the ciboney(Actually descendant of Floridians Native americans, the less civilised, and had been in the Island for couple of thousands of years, and only endemic to Cuba). The ciboney lived mostly on the western part of Cuba, were hunters-gatherers, and were the least amount of people. The taino people practice agriculture, specially cassava(yucca) root, and the famous casave bread. The taino people were widespread throughout the island, but mostly concentrated in the eastern part. After the Spanish people realized that the native american people were fragile and could not support the hard work, they turn to african labor. Few Native people remain, and they were put in what it seem like reservations. In Western Cuba only one town had native americans up until the early 1700s, that was the town of Guanabacoa, in Havana. Guanabacoa not only had native people, but spanish/french/portuguese and italian colonizers. They said this people were treated the same as the spanish they were given their land to labor it. But either they migrated to the eastern part of Cuba, or I do not know what happenned, because after the 1700s, presumably after 1710, no reports of native's in Guanabacoa. They did have one thing, they like to preserve their race, they would not intermarry other racial groups. Now the eastern part of Cuba has a different story. There were many reservations, Trinidad which is in the center was one, also El Caney, the mountains in Sierra Maestra. These natives were most likely taino's descendant vs the ciboney descendant of Guanabacoa. Cuba in the 1700s, early 1800s was about 48% white about 49% black(Includes Slaves, Free blacks, mulattoes and their descendants), and about 1% native. Of course Cuba's white population increased fast, but so did the slaves brought from africa. In Early 1800s the white population was around 500,000. It included the criollo(White descendant of the spanish) Spanish,Canary Islanders, Italians, Germans, French and portuguese. The was some migration of white french settlers from Haiti towards the eastern part. Now, I want ot point out tht the eastern part of Cuba or Oriente, had more of a slave populations, as the sugar cane plantations required black labor. The Western part had white labor, the canary islanders were known as the vegueros and worked in the tobbaco fields. Fearsome of a revolt of the slave population, like it happenned in Haiti. Spain started in middle to late 1800s giving land to incentivate european migrations many came to Cuba. Finally between 1900s and 1930 close to 1.3 million spaniards arrived to Cuba, which shifted the demographics. A small amounts of jews came during the holocaust, some of them are known, Mr. Otto Reich is Cuban, born to a Cuban Catholic Mother, and an Austrian Jewish Father. The chinese people started migrating to Cuba in the 1850's, they were used in the construction of the railroad. Many of them stayed in Cuba, because they had no money to return to China. A lot of these chinese Cubans, were treated as slaves, and they maybe because of affinity intermarried the black slaves of Cuba. There many chinese Cubans, have black or mulatto blood in them. The Native population, at least the taino were still found in late 1800s in the Eastern Part or Oriente. They are mentioned in some books. The native population did not leave a visible mark in the western population of Cuba, as many of the western Cubans are actually white. But it did indeed leave a great mark in the Eastern Population of Cuba. Fidel Castro was born in Oriente, and after the revolution he actually gave rise to a huge migration of Eastern People to the western part of Cuba. Nowdays, most of cuba's mixed population either is of Eastern Origen, or has recently mixed. Many have a grandparent or greatgrandparent that is nonwhite. Under the slogan: " We are all mixed" The revolution has set trend of mixing. Oddly enough, the tyrans are actually white, given only one or two that are black. Meanwhile they want the mainstream population to mix as much as they can't, they even incent it. Not only have they destroy Cuba's heritage but the Cuban Identity per se, because you could ask anyone about the History of Cuba before 1959 in Cuba, they won't know. Cubans in the island went from being probably one of the most respected people in Latin America before 1959, to a whore house nowdays. Sadly Cuba because of its poverty is consider one of the main sex tourist destinations, right behind thailand. Of those that migrated to the US most were upper class, they are the descedant of the Criollo(White Cubans) and they carry that culture, that has been americanized. Nowdays, there is still probably close to 30% of Cubans in the island that are white, maybe even less. What is for sure is that Cuba is not 65% white, as the so called census of 2002 says. Because many people born to a mulatto parent and a white parent were classified as white during this census.
There you have it people, a brief history of Cuba's demographics. Feel free to question anything, or add to it.
The majority of Police Officer's in Havana are Orientales(Easterners)
Let me know if the native component is obvious, I always found something weird in them(The people of Eastern Cuban Descent)
Sorry for the low quality, it's hard to find a good quality picture of these SOB
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 29 2010, 03:25 PM.
|Euskal kubatarrak||May 29 2010, 11:19 PM Post #8|
Delilah Cuba's and Puerto Rico's history are different. Puerto Rico had way more Tainos than Cuba. Our Racial Relations in Cuba were different, like I said east mostly mixed, west mostly white. In puerto Rico because it was so small, there was not east or west, plus the MtDNA reveals that PR have more Native and Sub-Saharan Black than the Cubans in this Project. Cuba got more influx of Euro specifically Spanish and Meds, we did not get Irish and others. So it's different.
What is your point??? That the 10 people that are J2 and the 1 that is J1 are not Euro??? What are you trying to say.
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 29 2010, 11:20 PM.
|Euskal kubatarrak||May 30 2010, 12:34 AM Post #9|
I know that it was the tainos, I said it, the ciboney had been in Cuba for probably 2000 to 3000 years. An anthropologist here in the US told me once that the Ciboney were related to the Natives in Florida. Also, there was some migration of natives from here, to Cuba in 1763 when Spain gave Saint Augustine to England, a lot of the spanish descendant left, but also some native people left. In the 1800s some cherokee, and Iriquois left from here to Cuba. As in respect to that Cuban DNA Project, I don't know if is such a representation, after all there are 128 samples Mt-DNA, and 140 Y-DNA, but still it shows that 42% of MtDNA is Euro, being the biggest group of all, and 70% of Y-DNA is Euro also, that is if you consider the 20% coming from the E1b1 and the E to be Subsaharan african. Autosomal test, I was looking for them could not find any. Also let me know your impression in the policeman that I put on the pics, I realized today that in the thread about Cubans that was done once here, I literally went through the pics and found that the majority of people on the pics were Easterners or Orientales, vs the actual Westerners.
|Euskal kubatarrak||May 30 2010, 12:52 AM Post #10|
Now something I want to add is some pictures taken from another thread here about Cubans, where I'll point out the Easterners or people born in Oriente, or Descendant full or half or even less of people of Oriente. I'll also show a westener of about the same age/group.
The first pic correspond to an Eastener vs the second one that correspond to a westener both living in Havana City,the latter being originally from there. Notice that although the second one is tan, as most people in Cuba are because of the sun he does not show any nonwhite characteristics.
The next shows people from the country side, people that usually work under sun the whole day. First the easteners or orientales
Now the westerner. 5th Pic & 6th Pic
7th Picture is an Oriental-Eastener farmer or guajiro
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 30 2010, 01:04 AM.
|Euskal kubatarrak||May 30 2010, 03:09 AM Post #11|
The amount of mestizos that married into the mainstream white Cuban population was very little, so that is the exception not the rule
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 30 2010, 03:12 AM.
|Euskal kubatarrak||May 30 2010, 05:07 PM Post #12|
CG, like a said a more deep study would have to be done in the Cuban Population, at least the White Cuban, to find whta the medium level of admixture is. I think that the 1957 census is actually more accurate than the 2002, back then the population was about 5.5 million people, and if between 1900 and 1930 close to 1.3 million spaniards came to Cuba, which was already about 50/50 White/Nonwhite that could definetily boost up the white population. The same thing happened after the revolution, were the was a huge migration of White Cubans out of Cuba, greatly shifting today's demographics. It correlates with the fact that those people that show Mt-DNA native, if their ancestor was mixed in the middle 1500s and they do not have any recent mixing, in the near 6 or 7th generation, they are not going to know about it, and probably identify with white.
|Euskal kubatarrak||May 30 2010, 05:51 PM Post #13|
Curious the mixing only ocurred during the first century of colonization, and it was minor, during the 1500s, like I said Cuba's population was less than 6000 people, most of Cuba's Population migrated to Cuba afterwards. These study although is the only one available is not a true representation, because it only has 128 mt-DNA, and 140 Y-DNA testing. I know its the only one that we have plus one that was done in Cuba by a Team of Spaniards. In the forum Dienekes Anthropology shows:
The Native American contribution to present-day Cubans accounted for 33% of the maternal lineages, whereas Africa and Eurasia contributed 45% and 22% of the lineages, respectively. This Native American substrate in Cuba cannot be traced back to a single origin within the American continent, as previously suggested by ancient DNA analyses. Strikingly, no Native American lineages were found for the Y-chromosome, for which the Eurasian and African contributions were around 80% and 20%, respectively.
The mestizo classification was indeed used, it was only in the very first century that they said that the child of a spaniard and a native was white. When it comes to black, the table was totally different, the had all kinds of different classification. From Mulatto, to Pardo, to Moreno, you name it.
This is a different study of mt-DNA that was done in the Western Province of Pinar del Rio in 1994. Like I said, the real studies of the composition of this provincies or states, would have to be done in people born there before 1959, and whose parents are from there, not from Oriente.
African, Native American, and European mitochondrial DNAs in Cubans from Pinar del Rio Province and implications for the recent epidemic neuropathy in Cuba
Antonio Torroni 1 3, Michael D. Brown 1, Marie T. Lott 1, Nancy J. Newman 2, Douglas C. Wallace 1 *, The Cuba Neuropathy Field Investigation Team 4 5 6 7
1Departments of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30332; Fax: 404-727-3949
2Departments of Ophthalmology, Neurology, Neurosurgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30332; Fax: 404-727-3949
3Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Uniiversity La Sapienza, Rome, Italy; Fax: 404-727-3949
4The Cuban Ministry of Public Health, Havana, Cuba; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30322; Fax: 404-727-3949
5Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C. 20090; Fax: 404-727-3949
6National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20514; Fax: 404-727-3949
7The Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C, 20204; Fax: 404-727-3949
*Correspondence to Douglas C. Wallace, Departments of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30332; Fax: 404-727-3949
The Cuba Neuropathy Field Investigation Team includes individual representatives whom are listed in Newman et al. (1994).
mtDNA variation in Cuba • Ethnic-specific mtDNA polymorphisms • Cuban optic neuropathy
Genetic predisposition, particularly specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) backgrounds, has been proposed as a contributing factor in the expression of an epidemic of bilateral optic neuropathy that has affected residents of Cuba since 1991. To substantiate or refute the possibility that specific subsets of mtDNAs could participate in disease expression, we took advantage of the heterogeneous ethnic origin of the Cuban population and the recent identification of a number of mtDNA polymorphisms that appear to be specific for Africans, Native Americans, and Europeans. The screening of both carefully selected people with epidemic neuropathy and control subjects from the Pinar del Rio Province for these polymorphisms revealed that African, Native American, and European mtDNA haplotypes were equally represented among case and control subjects, and suggested that approximately 50% of Cuban mtDNAs originated from Europeans, 46% from Africans, and 4% from Native Americans. These findings demonstrate that mutations arising in specific mtDNAs are unlikely to play a role in the epidemic neuropathy and indicate that analysis of mtDNA haplotypes can be a valuable tool for assessing the relative maternal contribution of Africans, Native Americans, and Europeans in a mixed population.
Received: 29 April 1994; Accepted: 5 August 1994
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
10.1002/humu.1380050407 About DOI
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 30 2010, 06:18 PM.
|Euskal kubatarrak||Jun 1 2010, 12:01 AM Post #14|
The Pinar del Rio study found:
The screening of both carefully selected people with epidemic neuropathy and control subjects from the Pinar del Rio Province for these polymorphisms revealed that African, Native American, and European mtDNA haplotypes were equally represented among case and control subjects, and suggested that approximately 50% of Cuban mtDNAs originated from Europeans, 46% from Africans, and 4% from Native Americans.
4% mt-DNA Native American not 33% as you stated.
Yes I noticed I said 5.5 million and it was 6.5 millions.
Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas original population was mostly white, I'll even dare to say 70% white 30% black, even higher for Pinar del Rio. The majority of blacks that are there nowdays, are from oriente(Easteners). If you could post the studies about Camaguey and the one the goverment did in 2008 that will be great.
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, Jun 1 2010, 12:02 AM.
|Euskal kubatarrak||Jun 2 2010, 11:14 PM Post #15|
The following is a 1907 Cuban Census. that was before the mass migration of close to 1.2 Million Spaniards that happened in between 1900 and 1930.
Cuba 1907 Census
Province Total Population White Non-white(*) Percent White Percent NonWhite
Pinar del Rio 240,372 180,502 59,870 75.09% 24.91%
Habana 538,010 411,872 126,138 76.55% 23.45%
Matanzas 239,812 148,535 91,277 61.94% 38.06%
Santa Clara 457,431 331,680 125,751 72.51% 27.49%
Camaguey 118,269 96,593 21,676 81.67% 18.33%
Oriente 455,086 258,994 196,092 56.91% 43.09%
* It Includes Blacks, Asians and Mestizo/Mulatto
Country of Birth Total Population White Non-white(*) Percent white Percent Nonwhite
All Countries 2,048,980 1,428,176 620,804 69.70% 30.30%
Cuba 1,820,239 1,224,539 595,700 67.27% 32.73%
Puerto Rico 2,918 2,176 742 74.57% 25.43%
West Indies 4,280 1,066 3,214 24.91% 75.09%
Mexico 1,187 1,070 117 90.14% 9.86%
Central&South America 1,442 1,308 134 90.71% 9.29%
U.S.A 6,713 6,026 687 89.77% 10.23%
Spain 185,393 185,189 204 99.89% 0.11%
France 1,476 1,380 96 93.50% 6.50%
U.K 1,252 878 374 70.13% 29.87%
Rest of Europe 1,811 1,761 50 97.24% 2.76%
Africa 7,948 81 7,867 1.02% 98.98%
China 11,217 77 11,140 0.69% 99.31%
Any Other Country 3,104 2,625 479 84.57% 15.43%
* It Includes Blacks, Asians and Mestizo/Mulatto
|Euskal kubatarrak||Jul 23 2010, 04:49 AM Post #16|
After reading Mendizabal et al (2008) I came accross some minor odd facts.
Let's see what the Mt-DNA has to say:
Uhmm interesting they are counting U6b1 as an African Haplogroup even though is only found in Canary Islands and Iberian Peninsula.
Seems a bit misleading that it says 45% African, when actually 4 People are U6b1 and 1 is U6a and they are being counted as african haplogroups. Not that it really matters. But in this case African doesn't mean SubSaharan, because neither U6a nor U6b1 are subsaharan Haplogroups.
If you say 43% SSA, 24 % European/Middle East, 33% Amerid, seems more likely, I mean nowdays the White population in Cuba is probably close to 37% or even less, so that would seem about right.
They really got this one screwed up.
You could make an argument about E3a(13 People) actually coming from Spain and not Subsaharan Africa.
Distribution density of E1b1b1a (E-M78) in select areas of Africa and Eurasia
Since when is E3b2 and E3b3 exclusively a Subsaharan Haplogroup.
Distribution of E1b1b1b in select areas of Europe, Asia, and Africa
Distribution of E1b1b1c in select areas of Europe, Asia, and Africa
So out of the so called African Y-DNA Haplogroups only 3 1E1 and 2E2 are exclusively of SubSaharan Origin which means that only 2.3% of the total Y-DNA Haplogroups are SSA.
97.7% Eurasian/North African 2.3 SSA
Very different from
78.8% Eurasian 21.2 % African.
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, Jul 23 2010, 05:11 AM.
|Euskal kubatarrak||Jul 27 2010, 04:43 AM Post #17|
So I compiled this Charts that show the diversity on the Y-DNA Haplogroups and the Mt-DNA Haplogroups for the Y-DNA and Mt-DNA Haplogroups obtained from the Cuban DNA Project.
Please note this are major clades, there were too many subclades for me to include them. The U in the Mt-DNA Chart had 1 U that is U5b1, which has tied to Sub-Saharan africa. The E3b clades are mainly made of M-78 and M-81 mutations. Let me know if you have any questions.
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, Jul 27 2010, 04:45 AM.
|Euskal kubatarrak||Jul 28 2010, 02:38 AM Post #18|
This is by far the only Autosomal study that I have found that was done in Cuba to estimate genetic make up.
Attached find Fig 1 which gives Percent of African genes for each Racial Group. Also note on table two, the European Caucasian population used was English as there was not Spanish sample. I think a spanish sample would have given it a closer number for Cuban Caucasians.
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, Jul 28 2010, 02:39 AM.
|Euskal kubatarrak||Jul 28 2010, 03:13 AM Post #19|
|Thanks for posting it Delilah, well it sucks that there is not full access to that one, so there is not way to get the specific details. Anyways I'm assuming the reduction from 95% Euro in the Havana White Population back in 1976 to 85% Average now in 2009, might be due to the great influx of Easteners to Havana, and the current mixing culture.|
|Euskal kubatarrak||Jul 28 2010, 05:10 PM Post #20|
No offense Delilah, but Cubans and Puerto Ricans are very different in genetics terms. Firstly there is no such thing as European Puerto Ricans, in the sense that studies have shown a very homogenous mixed population ranging from 50% Euro to as high as 92%. But there are not clear difference withing groups. Do you understand what I mean. PR is more Race homogenous than Cuba is. Like PR probably has fewer blacks, and mulattoes. And is harder to draw the line between one Racial Group and the other, which is not the case for Cuba. Now going to the studies, I have taken a look at them. Unfortunately we don't have as many studies done in Cuba as PR does. There is clearly no study done here in the US on Cuban Americans autosomally the only thing we have is the 3 23andme members that have been seen on HBF and including the one you share. Well, I have a few things to post about the studies but I don't have time know, so I'll be posting them throughout the day.
Ok first issue to address Delilah, do not by any means trust anything coming from the studyofracialism.org
Look what an administrator said here:
This guy is either ignorant or a lying piece of bastard.
Origins of U.S. Hispanics. Implications for diabetes.
Hanis CL, Hewett-Emmett D, Bertin TK, Schull WJ.
Center for Demographic and Population Genetics, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston 77225.
I think someone should tell the administrator from a StudyofRacialism that parallel estimates are just that based on estimates not or real Autosomal test done on Cuban Americans. BTW I never seen Mexico with such a high Euro component, and Puerto Rico with such a low Euro Component. Something seems fishy about this study. Anyways that study does not specify anything about Cuban-Americans or their race and is based on parallel estimates.
Here is where he messed up real bad. He claims
Well he is right about it not looking for native Americans Genes. Although more recent studies have shown that Native American is minimal less than 1%, so their assumption to mark it negligible was so off the chart.
From Gonzalez et al(1975)
Since when does 95% Euro and 5% African turns into 80% Euro/Indian and 20% African. You see delilah, either he is ignorant of the study. Or he lied purposely to prove a point that there can't be such thing as White Cubans, and that they are heavily mixed.
The 1999 Study, it used a lot a samples. The only problem with it, is that one of the alleles that it was using to compared was somehow related to sickle cell and Malaria. So its results might be a little off. Well I find that Blacks were found to have 54% Caucasian genes, definately off, unless they counted mulattoes as Black. And that one found 2-7% Black Admixture in White Cubans from Villa Clara. Check out what the administrator on thestudyofracialism writes.
This guys seems to forget that the American Study, which is only one study done in 200+ Individuals failed to find black admixture in 70% of them, the other 30% had a medium admixture of 2.4% or something around that. So he is using the 0.7% again to make it seems very little. Regardless of that. Only one study done should definately not determine what the real admixture is in Colonial WASP or people mixed with Colonial WASP. I think more studies should be done, and rather than only look for black ancestry, how about native american. Because yes people like to claim it, but do they really want to have it. It seems more of Pop culture thing.
Well again done with that whole studyofracialism, I'll concentrate later on the most recent study. I think I might create a separate thread for that one, because it definately need some explanations. I need RR to explain some concepts to me. BTW here an advance of the study. It's only a 17 AIM study(Sample size for whites 71), so admixture could be overestimated. But that's not the only thing that I want to discuss.
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, Jul 28 2010, 06:17 PM.
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