Welcome Guest [Log In] [Register]
Add Reply
Cuban DNA Project
Topic Started: May 29 2010, 03:32 AM (7,937 Views)
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/CubaDNAProject/default.aspx?section=yresults

Cuba DNA Project
Y-DNA Test Results (Alleles) for Project Members
* Haplogroups in green have been confirmed by SNP testing. Haplogroups in red have been predicted by Family Tree DNA based on unambiguous results in the individual's personal page. This has been placed on this GAP page for your ease and convenience. Please note that for any predicted results we see no reason for ordering a SNP test to confirm the Haplogroup. If a "-" is in the HAPLO field then we feel that the the comparative results are not clear and unambiguous and if the kit holder wants to know their SNP with 100% confidence they may consider ordering a SNP confirmation test.

Well if anyone nows how to post that table here, be my guest please.
Now I know R1B1 is Euro. But can someone tell me the rest, at least the ones that appear here. Like J is middle east, but what about G.

There are 140 Samples of Y-dna:
65 are R1b1
5 are R1a1
3 are J1
1 is J1b
10 are J2
1 is Q1
3 are Q1a3a
5 are I
5 are I1
5 are I2a
2 are I2b1
1 is I2b
21 are E1b1
2 are E
6 are T
1 is O
1 is O2
6 are C
3 are G
2 are G2a3a
1 is G2a.
Now family of Y-DNA Haplogroups we have
70-R1
11-J
4-Q
18-I
23-E
6-T
3-O
6-C
6-G
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 29 2010, 03:56 AM.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
Now Mt-DNA. This one doesn't say anything about results in green or red. So I don't know.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/CubaDNAProject/default.aspx?section=mtresults

There are 128 Samples. The Mt-DNA Haplogroups are:
26 are A
2 are A2
6 are B
9 are C
3 are D
1 is D1
12 are H
3 are H1
2 are H14
1 is H3
1 is H6a
1 is H7
1 is HV
1 is I1a
8 are J
1 is J2a2
1 is J2b1
1 is K
1 is K1a
1 is K1b1a
1 is K2b
1 is L0a1
5 are L1b
1 is L1b1a
1 is L1c2
6 are L2a
1 is L2c
1 is L3e1b
1 is L3e2
5 are L3e2b
1 is L3e3
2 are L3f
1 is L3g
1 is M
2 are T2
1 is T2b
2 are U4
1 is U5
1 is U5b1
1 is U6
1 is U6a7
2 are U6b1
3 are V
4 are W
So overall there are:
28-A (Including a Taino and a Central American)(Pastora Muro, sagua b. Cuba abt. 1810 (Taino),Henrietta Bettencourt Belize, Central America )
6-B
9-C
4-D
21-H
1-I
10-J
4-K (Found this on the K: Teodora Yunez, c.1880, Tabarja, Lebanon )
26-L
1-M
3-T
8-U
3-V
4-W


Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 29 2010, 03:52 AM.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
So there you go people, broke it down for you. Now do your magic!!! I know R1 is Euro, but what is J, supposedly E1b is african, but I don't know. Is C in Y-DNA HP Native American. If you could like group them in like African: . European:. Asian/Native American:.
Samething for Mt-DNA
Crimson, I want to analyze this statistics. Help me out. I know some of the basics Haplogroups but I don't them all.
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 29 2010, 04:01 AM.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
The Ts are what??
I'm not in that list BTW.

So Mt-DNA HP wise there are:
Native American:
48-Total (28A, 6B, 9C, 4D)
That is 37.5% Of the total sample of 128 Mt-DNA
Which Y-DNA are native american??
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 29 2010, 04:19 AM.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
Crimson Guard
May 29 2010, 04:25 AM
I'm not too interested in genetics to be honest, so cant be of much help, CB. I do know familytree is behind in the times and not very reliable on the origins of the markers.

mtDNA K is certainly not Jewish:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_K_%28mtDNA%29

E3b seems to be a Caucasoid( or proto-Caucasoid) marker, one sub-type or clade(whatever you want to call it) is mostly limited to the Berbers and another clade is indigenous Southeastern Europe/Balkans which is the one the bulk of what Europeans have.

Well, here in the US family trees maybe no so much, as some people tended to move around and change their names, the passing as white required that. In other countries, such as Cuba and Spain, and think is pretty reliable.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
Ok so let me continue analyzing mt-DNA
Native American: 48-Total (28A, 6B, 9C, 4D) 37.5% of total sample
Sub-saharan african: 26 L-Total 20.3125% of total sample
1 M (Could be African/ Asian/ or Middle Eastern M is found in all those places) 27 Total (26 L, 1M) 21.09375%
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_M_(mtDNA)

European: 54 total(21H,1I,10J,4K,3T,8U,3V,4W) 42.1875% of total sample

I want to point out that Mt-DNA V is purely Iberian.
Among the oldest mtDNA haplogroups found in European remains of Homo sapiens is U5
Haplogroup U6 was named 'Ulla' by Bryan Sykes. It is common (around 10% of the people) in North Africa (with a maximum of 29% in Algerian Berbers[17]) and the Canary Islands (18%). It is also found in the Iberian peninsula, where it has the highest diversity (10 out of 19 sublineages are only found in this region and not in Africa)
Y-DNA now
Q1 looks like it could be Asian, while Q1a3a is Native American
C-Is Native American
O is asian, or indonesian.
So
Native American/Asian: 13 (4Q, 6C,3O) 9.29% of total sample

North African: 23 E(21E1,2E) 16.42% of total sample


European/Middle East: 111 (70 R1, 11J, 18I,6 T, 6 G) 79.3% of total sample


Some interesting facts:
R1b(65 People) is the most frequently occurring Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe
R1a(5 People) The R1a1* paragroup is apparently less rare than R1* but still relatively unusual, though it has been tested in more than one survey. Underhill et al. for example report 1/51 in Norway, 3/305 in Sweden, 1/57 Greek Macedonians, 1/150 Iranians, 2/734 Ethnic Armenians, and 1/141 Kabardians
I2(8 People) Highest frequencies I2a2 Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, I2a1 Sardinia [1], Basques, Serbs; I2b1 Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, England
I1(10 People) Highest frequencies People of Northern Europe (Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Finnish, Sami, Estonian, German, Dutch, English, Scottish, Irish), French
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, Jun 4 2010, 05:08 AM.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
Yes and no, Cuba's Population was less than 6000 people as far as early 1600s. Cuba's Native Population, had arrive in Cuba less than 500 years before the Spanish arrived. I'm not certain if is 500 years o more, but my point is that they hadn't been there long. Some estimates the native population to be in the 200,000 people, some even said it reached 500,000, although most historians agree in 200,000 people. By 1554 or even before than in 1534, there were only 3000 o less native people left. Some mixing did occur in the 1500s, because most of the people in Cuba were soldiers rather than civilians. Cuba was almost abandoned once in the early 1600s, if it wasn't because Spain authorized bringing slaves, to boost up the economy, It would have been long gone. The major's influx of Cuba's Population, came after the 1600's mostly Canary Islander's, some white spanish settlers from Jamaica in 1623 I think, when it fell at the hands of the English. The native people, which were actually divided in two, the taino's(who are descendant of the arawak(not sure if it is spell this way) people) and the ciboney(Actually descendant of Floridians Native americans, the less civilised, and had been in the Island for couple of thousands of years, and only endemic to Cuba). The ciboney lived mostly on the western part of Cuba, were hunters-gatherers, and were the least amount of people. The taino people practice agriculture, specially cassava(yucca) root, and the famous casave bread. The taino people were widespread throughout the island, but mostly concentrated in the eastern part. After the Spanish people realized that the native american people were fragile and could not support the hard work, they turn to african labor. Few Native people remain, and they were put in what it seem like reservations. In Western Cuba only one town had native americans up until the early 1700s, that was the town of Guanabacoa, in Havana. Guanabacoa not only had native people, but spanish/french/portuguese and italian colonizers. They said this people were treated the same as the spanish they were given their land to labor it. But either they migrated to the eastern part of Cuba, or I do not know what happenned, because after the 1700s, presumably after 1710, no reports of native's in Guanabacoa. They did have one thing, they like to preserve their race, they would not intermarry other racial groups. Now the eastern part of Cuba has a different story. There were many reservations, Trinidad which is in the center was one, also El Caney, the mountains in Sierra Maestra. These natives were most likely taino's descendant vs the ciboney descendant of Guanabacoa. Cuba in the 1700s, early 1800s was about 48% white about 49% black(Includes Slaves, Free blacks, mulattoes and their descendants), and about 1% native. Of course Cuba's white population increased fast, but so did the slaves brought from africa. In Early 1800s the white population was around 500,000. It included the criollo(White descendant of the spanish) Spanish,Canary Islanders, Italians, Germans, French and portuguese. The was some migration of white french settlers from Haiti towards the eastern part. Now, I want ot point out tht the eastern part of Cuba or Oriente, had more of a slave populations, as the sugar cane plantations required black labor. The Western part had white labor, the canary islanders were known as the vegueros and worked in the tobbaco fields. Fearsome of a revolt of the slave population, like it happenned in Haiti. Spain started in middle to late 1800s giving land to incentivate european migrations many came to Cuba. Finally between 1900s and 1930 close to 1.3 million spaniards arrived to Cuba, which shifted the demographics. A small amounts of jews came during the holocaust, some of them are known, Mr. Otto Reich is Cuban, born to a Cuban Catholic Mother, and an Austrian Jewish Father. The chinese people started migrating to Cuba in the 1850's, they were used in the construction of the railroad. Many of them stayed in Cuba, because they had no money to return to China. A lot of these chinese Cubans, were treated as slaves, and they maybe because of affinity intermarried the black slaves of Cuba. There many chinese Cubans, have black or mulatto blood in them. The Native population, at least the taino were still found in late 1800s in the Eastern Part or Oriente. They are mentioned in some books. The native population did not leave a visible mark in the western population of Cuba, as many of the western Cubans are actually white. But it did indeed leave a great mark in the Eastern Population of Cuba. Fidel Castro was born in Oriente, and after the revolution he actually gave rise to a huge migration of Eastern People to the western part of Cuba. Nowdays, most of cuba's mixed population either is of Eastern Origen, or has recently mixed. Many have a grandparent or greatgrandparent that is nonwhite. Under the slogan: " We are all mixed" The revolution has set trend of mixing. Oddly enough, the tyrans are actually white, given only one or two that are black. Meanwhile they want the mainstream population to mix as much as they can't, they even incent it. Not only have they destroy Cuba's heritage but the Cuban Identity per se, because you could ask anyone about the History of Cuba before 1959 in Cuba, they won't know. Cubans in the island went from being probably one of the most respected people in Latin America before 1959, to a whore house nowdays. Sadly Cuba because of its poverty is consider one of the main sex tourist destinations, right behind thailand. Of those that migrated to the US most were upper class, they are the descedant of the Criollo(White Cubans) and they carry that culture, that has been americanized. Nowdays, there is still probably close to 30% of Cubans in the island that are white, maybe even less. What is for sure is that Cuba is not 65% white, as the so called census of 2002 says. Because many people born to a mulatto parent and a white parent were classified as white during this census.
There you have it people, a brief history of Cuba's demographics. Feel free to question anything, or add to it.
The majority of Police Officer's in Havana are Orientales(Easterners)
Let me know if the native component is obvious, I always found something weird in them(The people of Eastern Cuban Descent)
Posted Image
Posted Image
Sorry for the low quality, it's hard to find a good quality picture of these SOB
Posted Image
Posted Image
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 29 2010, 03:25 PM.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
Delilah Cuba's and Puerto Rico's history are different. Puerto Rico had way more Tainos than Cuba. Our Racial Relations in Cuba were different, like I said east mostly mixed, west mostly white. In puerto Rico because it was so small, there was not east or west, plus the MtDNA reveals that PR have more Native and Sub-Saharan Black than the Cubans in this Project. Cuba got more influx of Euro specifically Spanish and Meds, we did not get Irish and others. So it's different.
Odin of Ossetia
May 29 2010, 10:00 PM
You guys are retarded.


It is universally known that the J paternal lines are of Semitic origin.
What is your point??? That the 10 people that are J2 and the 1 that is J1 are not Euro??? What are you trying to say.
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 29 2010, 11:20 PM.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
Curious2know
May 30 2010, 12:25 AM
It was the Tainos who had "recently" arrived in Cuba. Most Cuban natives were Siboney and they had been in Cuba for thousands of years. However, this group's ancestry encompassed those who had migrated from Fla. as well as the Yucatan and South America, according to the info. I have read. I think that Cuba DNA Project is a good representation of Cuban-Americans Y and mitochondrial DNA, it is not a autosomal test, after all.
I know that it was the tainos, I said it, the ciboney had been in Cuba for probably 2000 to 3000 years. An anthropologist here in the US told me once that the Ciboney were related to the Natives in Florida. Also, there was some migration of natives from here, to Cuba in 1763 when Spain gave Saint Augustine to England, a lot of the spanish descendant left, but also some native people left. In the 1800s some cherokee, and Iriquois left from here to Cuba. As in respect to that Cuban DNA Project, I don't know if is such a representation, after all there are 128 samples Mt-DNA, and 140 Y-DNA, but still it shows that 42% of MtDNA is Euro, being the biggest group of all, and 70% of Y-DNA is Euro also, that is if you consider the 20% coming from the E1b1 and the E to be Subsaharan african. Autosomal test, I was looking for them could not find any. Also let me know your impression in the policeman that I put on the pics, I realized today that in the thread about Cubans that was done once here, I literally went through the pics and found that the majority of people on the pics were Easterners or Orientales, vs the actual Westerners.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
Now something I want to add is some pictures taken from another thread here about Cubans, where I'll point out the Easterners or people born in Oriente, or Descendant full or half or even less of people of Oriente. I'll also show a westener of about the same age/group.

The first pic correspond to an Eastener vs the second one that correspond to a westener both living in Havana City,the latter being originally from there. Notice that although the second one is tan, as most people in Cuba are because of the sun he does not show any nonwhite characteristics.
The next shows people from the country side, people that usually work under sun the whole day. First the easteners or orientales
Now the westerner. 5th Pic & 6th Pic
7th Picture is an Oriental-Eastener farmer or guajiro
Attached to this post:
Attachments: cu12.jpg (72.08 KB)
Attachments: cu20__Small_.jpg (12.15 KB)
Attachments: cuban1xi8.jpg (56.65 KB)
Attachments: cuban2tt9.jpg (58.84 KB)
Attachments: cu10__Medium_.jpg (116.6 KB)
Attachments: cuban6jf6.jpg (99.09 KB)
Attachments: cuban15kf9.jpg (63.34 KB)
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 30 2010, 01:04 AM.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
The amount of mestizos that married into the mainstream white Cuban population was very little, so that is the exception not the rule
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 30 2010, 03:12 AM.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
Crimson Guard
May 30 2010, 06:37 AM
Cuban-Basque
May 30 2010, 12:34 AM
but still it shows that 42% of MtDNA is Euro, being the biggest group of all, and 70% of Y-DNA is Euro also.
This is an older one, but based on all the genetics, how well does this figure for Cuba correlate you think?

Posted Image

http://s1.zetaboards.com/anthroscape/topic/3139425/1/#new
CG, like a said a more deep study would have to be done in the Cuban Population, at least the White Cuban, to find whta the medium level of admixture is. I think that the 1957 census is actually more accurate than the 2002, back then the population was about 5.5 million people, and if between 1900 and 1930 close to 1.3 million spaniards came to Cuba, which was already about 50/50 White/Nonwhite that could definetily boost up the white population. The same thing happened after the revolution, were the was a huge migration of White Cubans out of Cuba, greatly shifting today's demographics. It correlates with the fact that those people that show Mt-DNA native, if their ancestor was mixed in the middle 1500s and they do not have any recent mixing, in the near 6 or 7th generation, they are not going to know about it, and probably identify with white.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
Curious the mixing only ocurred during the first century of colonization, and it was minor, during the 1500s, like I said Cuba's population was less than 6000 people, most of Cuba's Population migrated to Cuba afterwards. These study although is the only one available is not a true representation, because it only has 128 mt-DNA, and 140 Y-DNA testing. I know its the only one that we have plus one that was done in Cuba by a Team of Spaniards. In the forum Dienekes Anthropology shows:
The Native American contribution to present-day Cubans accounted for 33% of the maternal lineages, whereas Africa and Eurasia contributed 45% and 22% of the lineages, respectively. This Native American substrate in Cuba cannot be traced back to a single origin within the American continent, as previously suggested by ancient DNA analyses. Strikingly, no Native American lineages were found for the Y-chromosome, for which the Eurasian and African contributions were around 80% and 20%, respectively.
Curious2know
May 30 2010, 05:14 PM
Cuban-Basque
May 30 2010, 03:09 AM
The amount of mestizos that married into the mainstream white Cuban population was very little, so that is the exception not the rule
I think you are adhering to a dogma and not reality. DNA tells you what really happened during the first two centuries of colonization. The fact that so many Cubans have Native American mitochondrial hgs tells you a lot. The fact that so many have European mtDNA, compared to others in the region, tells you a lot of Spanish and other Euro women settled in Cuba and that whole families became part of the colonization process. The early mestizo population was simply absorbed or incorporated into the Spanish population. Apparently, there never developed a separate mestizo population in Cuba. And this classification, meaning people of mixed Euro-Native American ancestry, was not used or simply discarded. At one point, there were no longer any identifiable natives and the amount of "Indian" blood was minor. Having a Native American or sub-Saharan hg, is not an indictation of someone's actual genetic make up. Only an autosomal test will tell you that. I would bet anything that those Cubans who joined the Cuba DNA Project were very surprised to find out they had Amerindian hgs, on the maternal side. And most who have a sub-Saharan hg probably did not expect it either.
The mestizo classification was indeed used, it was only in the very first century that they said that the child of a spaniard and a native was white. When it comes to black, the table was totally different, the had all kinds of different classification. From Mulatto, to Pardo, to Moreno, you name it.

This is a different study of mt-DNA that was done in the Western Province of Pinar del Rio in 1994. Like I said, the real studies of the composition of this provincies or states, would have to be done in people born there before 1959, and whose parents are from there, not from Oriente.

African, Native American, and European mitochondrial DNAs in Cubans from Pinar del Rio Province and implications for the recent epidemic neuropathy in Cuba
Antonio Torroni 1 3, Michael D. Brown 1, Marie T. Lott 1, Nancy J. Newman 2, Douglas C. Wallace 1 *, The Cuba Neuropathy Field Investigation Team 4 5 6 7
1Departments of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30332; Fax: 404-727-3949
2Departments of Ophthalmology, Neurology, Neurosurgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30332; Fax: 404-727-3949
3Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Uniiversity La Sapienza, Rome, Italy; Fax: 404-727-3949
4The Cuban Ministry of Public Health, Havana, Cuba; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30322; Fax: 404-727-3949
5Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C. 20090; Fax: 404-727-3949
6National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20514; Fax: 404-727-3949
7The Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C, 20204; Fax: 404-727-3949


*Correspondence to Douglas C. Wallace, Departments of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30332; Fax: 404-727-3949

The Cuba Neuropathy Field Investigation Team includes individual representatives whom are listed in Newman et al. (1994).

Keywords
mtDNA variation in Cuba • Ethnic-specific mtDNA polymorphisms • Cuban optic neuropathy


Abstract
Genetic predisposition, particularly specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) backgrounds, has been proposed as a contributing factor in the expression of an epidemic of bilateral optic neuropathy that has affected residents of Cuba since 1991. To substantiate or refute the possibility that specific subsets of mtDNAs could participate in disease expression, we took advantage of the heterogeneous ethnic origin of the Cuban population and the recent identification of a number of mtDNA polymorphisms that appear to be specific for Africans, Native Americans, and Europeans. The screening of both carefully selected people with epidemic neuropathy and control subjects from the Pinar del Rio Province for these polymorphisms revealed that African, Native American, and European mtDNA haplotypes were equally represented among case and control subjects, and suggested that approximately 50% of Cuban mtDNAs originated from Europeans, 46% from Africans, and 4% from Native Americans. These findings demonstrate that mutations arising in specific mtDNAs are unlikely to play a role in the epidemic neuropathy and indicate that analysis of mtDNA haplotypes can be a valuable tool for assessing the relative maternal contribution of Africans, Native Americans, and Europeans in a mixed population.
Received: 29 April 1994; Accepted: 5 August 1994

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

10.1002/humu.1380050407 About DOI
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, May 30 2010, 06:18 PM.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
The Pinar del Rio study found:
The screening of both carefully selected people with epidemic neuropathy and control subjects from the Pinar del Rio Province for these polymorphisms revealed that African, Native American, and European mtDNA haplotypes were equally represented among case and control subjects, and suggested that approximately 50% of Cuban mtDNAs originated from Europeans, 46% from Africans, and 4% from Native Americans.
4% mt-DNA Native American not 33% as you stated.
Yes I noticed I said 5.5 million and it was 6.5 millions.
Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas original population was mostly white, I'll even dare to say 70% white 30% black, even higher for Pinar del Rio. The majority of blacks that are there nowdays, are from oriente(Easteners). If you could post the studies about Camaguey and the one the goverment did in 2008 that will be great.
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, Jun 1 2010, 12:02 AM.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
The following is a 1907 Cuban Census. that was before the mass migration of close to 1.2 Million Spaniards that happened in between 1900 and 1930.

Cuba 1907 Census

Province Total Population White Non-white(*) Percent White Percent NonWhite

Pinar del Rio 240,372 180,502 59,870 75.09% 24.91%

Habana 538,010 411,872 126,138 76.55% 23.45%

Matanzas 239,812 148,535 91,277 61.94% 38.06%

Santa Clara 457,431 331,680 125,751 72.51% 27.49%

Camaguey 118,269 96,593 21,676 81.67% 18.33%

Oriente 455,086 258,994 196,092 56.91% 43.09%

* It Includes Blacks, Asians and Mestizo/Mulatto


Country of Birth Total Population White Non-white(*) Percent white Percent Nonwhite

All Countries 2,048,980 1,428,176 620,804 69.70% 30.30%

Cuba 1,820,239 1,224,539 595,700 67.27% 32.73%

Puerto Rico 2,918 2,176 742 74.57% 25.43%

West Indies 4,280 1,066 3,214 24.91% 75.09%

Mexico 1,187 1,070 117 90.14% 9.86%

Central&South America 1,442 1,308 134 90.71% 9.29%

U.S.A 6,713 6,026 687 89.77% 10.23%

Spain 185,393 185,189 204 99.89% 0.11%

France 1,476 1,380 96 93.50% 6.50%

U.K 1,252 878 374 70.13% 29.87%

Rest of Europe 1,811 1,761 50 97.24% 2.76%

Africa 7,948 81 7,867 1.02% 98.98%

China 11,217 77 11,140 0.69% 99.31%

Any Other Country 3,104 2,625 479 84.57% 15.43%

* It Includes Blacks, Asians and Mestizo/Mulatto
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
After reading Mendizabal et al (2008) I came accross some minor odd facts.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2492877/
Quote:
 
Abstract
Background
Before the arrival of Europeans to Cuba, the island was inhabited by two Native American groups, the Tainos and the Ciboneys. Most of the present archaeological, linguistic and ancient DNA evidence indicates a South American origin for these populations. In colonial times, Cuban Native American people were replaced by European settlers and slaves from Africa. It is still unknown however, to what extent their genetic pool intermingled with and was 'diluted' by the arrival of newcomers. In order to investigate the demographic processes that gave rise to the current Cuban population, we analyzed the hypervariable region I (HVS-I) and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) coding region in 245 individuals, and 40 Y-chromosome SNPs in 132 male individuals.
Results
The Native American contribution to present-day Cubans accounted for 33% of the maternal lineages, whereas Africa and Eurasia contributed 45% and 22% of the lineages, respectively. This Native American substrate in Cuba cannot be traced back to a single origin within the American continent, as previously suggested by ancient DNA analyses. Strikingly, no Native American lineages were found for the Y-chromosome, for which the Eurasian and African contributions were around 80% and 20%, respectively.
Conclusion
While the ancestral Native American substrate is still appreciable in the maternal lineages, the extensive process of population admixture in Cuba has left no trace of the paternal Native American lineages, mirroring the strong sexual bias in the admixture processes taking place during colonial times.

Let's see what the Mt-DNA has to say:
Quote:
 
Samples
Blood stains from 245 unrelated individuals from the general Cuban population were collected blindly with regard to their socioeconomic status in order to avoid ascertainment biases. For each individual, information on the province of origin of the maternal grandmother and paternal grandfather was recorded (see Figure ​Figure1)1) for further analyses on the geographical distribution of the lineages within Cuba. Samples consisted of unrelated healthy blood donors and appropriate informed consent was obtained from all individuals participating in the study. DNA was extracted using standard phenol-chloroform protocols.

Quote:
 
Phylogeographic analysis of mtDNA lineages in Cuba
A total of 153 different mtDNA sequences were found in the 245 individuals analyzed. Although the mtDNA sequence diversity (0.994 ± 0.001) and the mean pairwise differences (8.102 ± 3.774) in Cubans are relatively high, the WIMP value is low (2.869), suggesting that the sample set is composed of distantly related haplogroups with low to moderate internal diversity. According to the geographical origin attributed to each mtDNA haplogroup, 45% of the mtDNA sequences found in Cubans are of African origin, 33% of Native American origin and 22% of the lineages are of West Eurasian origin (namely, Europe and the Middle East) (Table 1).Within the African lineages, the vast majority of sequences belong to sub-Saharan L haplogroups (43.3% of the total sample), whereas a small proportion (2% of the total sample) fall into the typical North African U6 haplogroup. Interestingly, most of these U6 sequences (see Additional file 2) belong to the sub-clade U6b1, which is characteristic of Canary Islands [24]. The main U6b1 profile A16163G T16172C A16219G T16311C (three matches in Cuba) is in fact highly prevalent in the Canary Islands (~10%) [24], and outside these islands, it appears only sporadically in some other Latin-American countries such as Uruguay

From wikipedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_U_(mtDNA)
Quote:
 
U6b1: found only in the Iberian peninsula and the Canary Islands. Estimated age: c. 6000 BP.

Uhmm interesting they are counting U6b1 as an African Haplogroup even though is only found in Canary Islands and Iberian Peninsula.
Also U6a
From wikipedia:
Quote:
 
U6a: it is the most widespread (from Canary Islands and Iberian Peninsula to Syria, Ethiopia and Kenya) and has highest diversity in Eastern Africa. Estimated age: 24-27,500 BP

Seems a bit misleading that it says 45% African, when actually 4 People are U6b1 and 1 is U6a and they are being counted as african haplogroups. Not that it really matters. But in this case African doesn't mean SubSaharan, because neither U6a nor U6b1 are subsaharan Haplogroups.
If you say 43% SSA, 24 % European/Middle East, 33% Amerid, seems more likely, I mean nowdays the White population in Cuba is probably close to 37% or even less, so that would seem about right.


Now Y-DNA
They really got this one screwed up.
Quote:
 
With respect to the Y-chromosome haplogroups, 78.8% of the chromosomes analyzed can be traced back to the West Eurasian gene pool, whereas the African fraction accounts for 19.7% of Cuban lineages (Table 2); two individuals (1.5%) carried Y-chromosomes of East Asian origin. Among the West Eurasian fraction, the vast majority of individuals belong to West European haplogroup R1 (xR1a). The African lineages found in Cubans have a Western (haplogroups E1, E2, E3a) and Northern (haplogroup E3b2) African origin. Interestingly, we did not observe Native American Y-chromosome lineages, such as those belonging to haplogroups P or Q [28]. Considering that our sample size of Y-chromosomes is 132 individuals (n), the highest frequency (F) of whatever unobserved haplogroup in the population, with a 95% probability, could be estimated as 1-e-Fn = 0.95, according to the Poisson distribution. Therefore, it is still possible that Native American haplogroups could be present in the Cuban population with roughly a maximum frequency of 2.3%.

You could make an argument about E3a(13 People) actually coming from Spain and not Subsaharan Africa.
Wikipedia:
Quote:
 
E1b1b1a (E-M78), formerly E3b1a, is a commonly occurring subclade, widely distributed in North Africa, the Horn of Africa, West Asia, i.e. The Middle East and Near East "up to Southern Asia",[Note 7] and all of Europe.[Note 8] The European distribution has a frequency peak centered in parts of the Balkans (up to almost 50%[3][21]) and Italy and declining frequencies evident toward western, central, and northeastern Europe.

Based on genetic STR variance data, Cruciani et al. (2007) suggests that this subclade originated in "Northeastern Africa", which in the study refers specifically to Egypt and Libya.[Note 9][Note 10] about 18,600 years ago (17,300 - 20,000 years ago).[Note 11] Battaglia et al. (2008) describe Egypt as "a hub for the distribution of the various geographically localized M78-related sub-clades" and, based on archaeological data, they propose that the point of origin of E-M78 (as opposed to later dispersals from Egypt) may have been in a refugium which "existed on the border of present-day Sudan and Egypt, near Lake Nubia, until the onset of a humid phase around 8500 BC. The northward-moving rainfall belts during this period could have also spurred a rapid migration of Mesolithic foragers northwards in Africa, the Levant and ultimately onwards to Asia Minor and Europe, where they each eventually differentiated into their regionally distinctive branches". Towards the south, Hassan et al. (2008) also explain evidence that some subclades of E-M78, specifically E-V12 and E-22, "might have been brought to Sudan from North Africa after the progressive desertification of the Sahara around 6,000-8,000 years ago".

Distribution density of E1b1b1a (E-M78) in select areas of Africa and Eurasia
Posted Image

Since when is E3b2 and E3b3 exclusively a Subsaharan Haplogroup.
Wikipedia:
Quote:
 
E1b1b1b (E-M81), formerly E3b1b or E3b2, is the most common Y chromosome haplogroup in the Maghreb, dominated by its sub-clade E-M183. It is thought to have originated in the area of North Africa 5,600 years ago.[2][22] It is colloquially referred to as the "Berber marker" for its prevalence among Mozabite, Moyen Atlas, Kabyle and other Amazigh groups, E-M81 is also quite common among North African Arab groups. It reaches frequencies of up to 80% among some groups of Morocco. This includes the Saharawish for whose men Bosch et al. (2001) reports that approximately 76% are M81+.
In Europe, E-M81 is found everywhere but mostly in the Iberian Peninsula, where unlike in the rest of Europe[Note 12] it is more common than E-M78, with an average frequency of 4-5.6%, and frequencies reaching 9% in Galicia, 10% in Western Andalusia and Northwest Castile and 9% to 17% in Cantabria.[24][25][26][27][28] The highest frequencies of this clade found so far in Europe were observed in the Pasiegos from Cantabria, ranging from 18% (8/45)[28] to 41% (23/56)[2].

Distribution of E1b1b1b in select areas of Europe, Asia, and Africa
Posted Image
Wikipedia:
Quote:
 
E1b1b1 (E-M35), formerly E3b1c or E3b3, is mostly known for its major sub-clade E1b1b1c1 (E-M34), which dominates this clade.[Note 14] However, earlier studies did not test for E-M34.

Distribution of E1b1b1c in select areas of Europe, Asia, and Africa
Posted Image

So out of the so called African Y-DNA Haplogroups only 3 1E1 and 2E2 are exclusively of SubSaharan Origin which means that only 2.3% of the total Y-DNA Haplogroups are SSA.
That leaves
97.7% Eurasian/North African 2.3 SSA
Very different from
78.8% Eurasian 21.2 % African.
Attached to this post:
Attachments: mt_DNA_1.jpg (52.38 KB)
Attachments: mt_DNA_2.jpg (27.74 KB)
Attachments: Y_DNA.jpg (35.1 KB)
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, Jul 23 2010, 05:11 AM.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
So I compiled this Charts that show the diversity on the Y-DNA Haplogroups and the Mt-DNA Haplogroups for the Y-DNA and Mt-DNA Haplogroups obtained from the Cuban DNA Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/CubaDNAProject/default.aspx?section=yresults
Please note this are major clades, there were too many subclades for me to include them. The U in the Mt-DNA Chart had 1 U that is U5b1, which has tied to Sub-Saharan africa. The E3b clades are mainly made of M-78 and M-81 mutations. Let me know if you have any questions.
Attached to this post:
Attachments: Cuban_DNA_Project_Y_DNA_Haplogroups.jpg (28.19 KB)
Attachments: Cuban_DNA_Project_Mt_DNA_Haplogroups.jpg (36.13 KB)
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, Jul 27 2010, 04:45 AM.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
This is by far the only Autosomal study that I have found that was done in Cuba to estimate genetic make up.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1685179/
Quote:
 
A Study of the Genetical Structure of the Cuban Population:
Red Cell and Serum Biochemical Markers
R. GONZALEZ,1 J. M. BALLESTER,1 M. ESTRADA,1 F. LIMA,1 G. MARTINEZ,1
M. WADE,1 B. COLOMBO,1 AND R. VENTO2
INTRODUCTION
The present investigation is a genetic analysis of the Cuban population living in the
Havana province. It is well known that this population originated from Caucasian
Spaniards and African Negroes [1]. The original Cuban Indian population, which
consisted of approximately 100,000 individuals living in a neolithic society [2, 3],
was completely exterminated soon after the Spanish invasion beginning in 1510.
This rapid disappearance, which took place in less than 30 years, was the result of
epidemics, infant mortality, hunger, and many individual and collective suicides.
The suicides were the consequence of the psychological impact of Western civilization
for which "the submission to the insane, monotonous, and hard gold mine work,
without tribal meaning and without religious ritualism took away the reason for
life" [4]. Moreover, thousands of Indians were massacred at the beginning of the
conquest in attempts by the Spanish to subdue them and later to break their resistance;
in 1550 less than 5,000 had survived [5, 6]. Today approximately 500
Indians live in the most isolated mountains of the Oriente province. It was to this
province that their ancestors escaped and survived in complete isolation (Gonzalez
et al., in preparation). The contribution, therefore, of the Indian population to the
Cuban gene pool is negligible, so that the actual gene pool consists only of African
and European genes.
Previously, racial classification of Negroes, mulattoes, and whites, based only on
morphological appearance (i.e., color of skin, appearance of hair, and thickness of
lips, etc.), was used in population genetics and in the study of gene flow between
Caucasians and Negroes [7, 8]. Racial interbreeding in the Cuban population, for
example, is revealed by the variation of the morphological characteristics. More
recently, the development of biochemical techniques for the determination of welldefined
genetic characters-many of which allow the analysis of the primary gene
product-has permitted the study of the true genetic makeup of a population
We report a study of the genetic polymorphisms in Negroes, Caucasians, and mulattoes in the city of Havana. The results were used to measure the genetic
admixture between the two original groups (i.e., the amount of Caucasian and
Negro genes in the mulatto group) and to calculate gene frequencies in the general
Cuban population.
THE SAMPLE
The sample was arbitrarily made up of whites, mulattoes, and Negroes randomly
chosen from all the donors in the Blood Bank of Havana.
The classification of the three groups was based on the following morphological aspects:
colour of the skin, appearance of the hair, thickness of the lips, nose type, and hairiness.
These features could not be quantitated, but the same trained person classified all the
individuals on the basis of his personal evaluation. To minimize error, each individual was
asked about his racial ancestry.
The morphological variability in the mulatto group was very wide, but instead of
dividing this group into subgroups as done by other investigators [7], we included
"dark" as well as "light" mulattoes.
The sample consisted of 155 whites, 145 mulattoes, and 168 Negroes; all were males.
METHODS
Blood was collected in heparinized test tubes for enzyme determinations and without
anticoagulant for serum analysis. Blood cells were immediately separated by centrifugation
and washed three times with physiological saline solution at 40C; packed cells were stored
at -20'C and examined within a week. Serum was separated from the coagulated blood
cells by centrifugation and stored at -200C.
The following genetic markers were studied using the techniques described in the corresponding
references: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) [12]; 6-phosphogluconate-
dehydrogenase (6PGD) [13]; adenosine deaminase (ADA) [14]; phosphohexose
isomerase (PHI) [15]; acid phosphatase (ACP) [16]; phosphoglucomutase (PGM1)
[17]; adenylate kinase (AK1) [18]; peptidase A (PEPA) [19]; hemoglobin phenotypes
(Hb) [20]; haptoglobin (Hp) [21]; diaphorase (DIA1) [22]; lactate dehydrogenase
(LDH) [22].
G6PD activity was determined in all cases showing a GdA phenotype to discriminate
between GdA and GdA- alleles [12].
RESULTS
PHI and LDH did not show any detectable polymorphism; in both cases one
rare (slow) variant was found. Table 1 shows the phenotypes and the gene frequencies
found for the other 10 markers studied in this survey. It is worth noting
that all cases for which the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium could be tested showed
the expected frequencies.
DISCUSSION
The frequencies for 12 genetic traits in samples from the Havana Blood Bank
were used to characterize the genetic makeup of the Caucasians and Negroes living
in Cuba. Because these two groups originated in Spain and West Africa respectively,
frequencies found in the Caucasians are compared with frequencies of the
same traits in contemporary Spaniards, and those of the Negroes, with contemporary
West African Negroes
in table 2. As expected, an increasing African contribution from Caucasians to WVest African Negroes, going through the three
Cuban groups, was indeed observed.
These data can be used to measure the gene flow between these two groups with
the following restrictions: (1) the estimates of the gene frequencies of the base
populations are only approximate because it is impossible to locate exactly the
places from which present day groups originated; (2) present frequencies are the
same as those existing several generations ago; (3) selection might have occurred
together with admixture; and (4) the problems of sampling (see Reed [311).
Estimates of gene migration were calculated using the method of Bernstein [32];
the errors were calculated according to Reed [31]. The results for the alleles
considered are given in table 3.
Data obtained in the African regions from which Cuban Negroes probably
originated were used for the calculations. The heterogeneity of the ancestral
population brought to Cuba is well known [ 1 ], and the importance of such
heterogeneity on the admixture estimates has been discussed [331. Unfortunately,
the extent of this heterogeneity cannot be calculated because no reliable data are
available. Historical records are scanty and biased for the following reasons
[34-36]: (1) many Negro cargoes were smuggled so that a considerable number
of arrivals were not recorded; (2) the identification of the slaves was based on
the port of embarkment, not on the place of origin; (3) generally the composition
of the slaves carried in one ship was very heterogeneous to avoid mutinies; and
(4) the ethnographic identification was based mainly on the efficiency, character,
and submissiveness of the slave; thus, the slave traders used to sell one type of
slave for another with preference given to the most efficient. Considering these
observations and the average gene frequencies for the United States Negro given
by Adams and Ward [33], which are very similar to those used to calculate the genetic admixtures, we concluded that it is not possible to consider this heterogeneity,
and moreover it would not substantially improve the estimates of M.
In spite of this and the previously mentioned sources of uncertainty, the genes
analyzed seem to provide a rather consistent estimate of the genetic admixtures
studied. Moreover, these data indicate good agreement between the genetic composition
of each group and the discrimination based on morphological characteristics.
As expected [30], the estimates of Negro contribution to the three groups
studied, based on /', turned out to be lower than those obtained with other
markers. The most likely explanation for this finding is that selection acted against
this gene. The records available on the presence of malaria in Cuba indicate that
the endemic form was localized in the eastern part of the country (Oriente and
Camaguey provinces) and that Havana province has been nonmalarious-at least
since 1920 [37]. Although records during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
are poor and incomplete, they too suggest that the Havana province was never
affected by the endemic form of this disease [38].
The only marker which gave apparently inconsistent results was ACP, as can be
seen in table 3; the reasons for this finding are unknown, but a similar discrepancy
has been already reported by Terrenato et al. [39] in a study carried out to
determine the genetic distances among several Sardinian villages using many
genetic markers.
We can then conclude that a reasonably reliable estimate of the Caucasian and
African genetic admixture in the three groups studied (using only GdA, GdA,
PEPA2 and Hp') is the following: (1)Cuban Caucasians: 5% Negro genes (see
column 1, table 3) and therefore 95%, Caucasian genes; (2) Cuban mulattoes:
53 % Caucasian genes (see column 2, table 3) and therefore 47 % Negro genes;
592 (3) Cuban Negroes: 13% Caucasian genes (see column 4, table 3) and therefore
87% Negro genes.
The estimates of these mean values (M) were calculated according to Cavalli-
Sforza and Bodmer [40]. In figure P-the comparison between M and the estimates
of the African contribution to the genetic makeup of the three groups studied,
obtained for each allele, is reported.
586


Attached find Fig 1 which gives Percent of African genes for each Racial Group. Also note on table two, the European Caucasian population used was English as there was not Spanish sample. I think a spanish sample would have given it a closer number for Cuban Caucasians.
Attached to this post:
Attachments: Fig_1.jpg (35.49 KB)
Attachments: Table_2.jpg (60.17 KB)
Attachments: Table_3.jpg (52.73 KB)
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, Jul 28 2010, 02:39 AM.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
Thanks for posting it Delilah, well it sucks that there is not full access to that one, so there is not way to get the specific details. Anyways I'm assuming the reduction from 95% Euro in the Havana White Population back in 1976 to 85% Average now in 2009, might be due to the great influx of Easteners to Havana, and the current mixing culture.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
Euskal kubatarrak
Member Avatar
Senior Member
 *  *  *  *  *  *
Delilah
Jul 28 2010, 04:08 AM
Abnormal Hemoglobins and Racial Admixture in Villa Clara Province (1999)
Quote:
Summary:

Frequencies of the HBB*S and HBB*C alleles were estimated on the basis of a sample of 6007 Whites and 5084 Negroids from Villa Clara, Cuba. The allele frequencies estimates in Negroids were HBB*S = 0.0306 and HBB*C = 0.0030. As much as 54% of the alleles present in the Negroids may be of Europid origin, while persons classified as White may have from 2 to 7% of African ancestry.

You might know of this one Basque. It's old. I read a similar thing about how White Brazilians often also have Negroid ancestry. Of course not as much as those classified as mixed. But its there regardless. Sometimes I wonder if its due to real admixture or its has to do with the statistical ways they use to calculate admixture. Did you see what I posted about the Puerto Ricans and how a subsequent study was not able to replicate the earlier findings of increased African ancestry at Chromosome 6? Something called linkage disequilibrium affected the results.

Oh and actually these results are not so different from us mainly European Puerto Ricans. The only thing is that Puerto Ricans who have between 88% and 92% European also have Asian admixture. This lowers further their European percentages. Cubans have very little Native-American admixture.


There seems to have been a problem with the above study. It was discussed here: http://thestudyofracialism.org/viewtopic.php?t=1771
No offense Delilah, but Cubans and Puerto Ricans are very different in genetics terms. Firstly there is no such thing as European Puerto Ricans, in the sense that studies have shown a very homogenous mixed population ranging from 50% Euro to as high as 92%. But there are not clear difference withing groups. Do you understand what I mean. PR is more Race homogenous than Cuba is. Like PR probably has fewer blacks, and mulattoes. And is harder to draw the line between one Racial Group and the other, which is not the case for Cuba. Now going to the studies, I have taken a look at them. Unfortunately we don't have as many studies done in Cuba as PR does. There is clearly no study done here in the US on Cuban Americans autosomally the only thing we have is the 3 23andme members that have been seen on HBF and including the one you share. Well, I have a few things to post about the studies but I don't have time know, so I'll be posting them throughout the day.

Ok first issue to address Delilah, do not by any means trust anything coming from the studyofracialism.org
Look what an administrator said here:
http://thestudyofracialism.org/about1787-0-asc-20.html
Quote:
 
fwsweet
Administrator
Here are some more studies on Afro-European genetic admixture in Cubans that you may find useful:
Hanis 1991
Gonzalez 1975
Carpio 2005
Torroni 1995
Gonzalez 1976

Of the above studies, the first one (Hanis 1991) is probably the one most worth getting a copy of. It may seem irrelevant because it is about susceptibility to diabetes, but it summarizes and tabulates admixture measurements from many prior studies. Consequently, it shows the measurement ranges of many different studies. The summary of all the studies is as follows:

Mexican-Americans are 61 percent European, 31 percent Native American and 8 percent African. Puerto Ricans in the U.S. are 45 percent European, 18 percent Native American, and 37 percent African. Cuban-Americans are 62 percent European, 18 percent Native American, and 20 percent African.

The Gonzalez 1975 study was more limited and did not try to distinguish Native American from European. For Havana, it found 80 percent Euro-Indian and 20 percent African.

This guy is either ignorant or a lying piece of bastard.

Origins of U.S. Hispanics. Implications for diabetes.
Hanis CL, Hewett-Emmett D, Bertin TK, Schull WJ.

Center for Demographic and Population Genetics, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston 77225.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1914811?dopt=AbstractPlus
Quote:
 
Abstract
The purpose of this article was to characterize the origins of the United States Hispanic population and discuss the implications of these origins in the context of diabetes risk. Particular attention was focused on the genetic origins of the three major U.S. Hispanic groups, i.e., Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans. The U.S. Census figures provided basic demographic information. Genetic marker data for ancestral populations were taken from a review of the literature and compendia. Genetic marker data for the Puerto Rican and Cuban populations were extracted from the literature. Genetic markers determined on approximately 1000 randomly selected Mexican Americans from Starr County, Texas, were taken as representative of the Mexican-American population. The Hispanic population is the second largest and fastest growing minority in the U.S. Estimates of the Hispanic population in 1988 indicated some 19.4 million residents, of whom 62% were classified as Mexican, 13% as Puerto Rican, and the remaining 25% as Cubans and others. Various lines of evidence can be used to characterize the Hispanic population and its origins. These include ethnohistory, self-assessment of ancestry, surname distributions, speech and cultural characteristics, quantitative traits, and genetic structure. Genetic data were used to estimate the contribution of putative ancestral populations to the contemporary gene pool. For Mexican Americans, 31% of the contemporary gene pool is estimated to be Native American derived, whereas 61 and 8% are Spanish and African derived, respectively. In Puerto Rico, the percentage of contributions of Spanish, Native American, and African admixture to the population are 45, 18, and 37%, respectively. For Cuba, the parallel estimates are 62, 18, and 20%. The high frequency of Native American-derived genes in the contemporary Hispanic population predict a higher frequency of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) under the assumption that genes are important in NIDDM etiology. Our results are consistent with the finding of the significant role of genes in determining risk.

I think someone should tell the administrator from a StudyofRacialism that parallel estimates are just that based on estimates not or real Autosomal test done on Cuban Americans. BTW I never seen Mexico with such a high Euro component, and Puerto Rico with such a low Euro Component. Something seems fishy about this study. Anyways that study does not specify anything about Cuban-Americans or their race and is based on parallel estimates.

Here is where he messed up real bad. He claims
Quote:
 
The Gonzalez 1975 study was more limited and did not try to distinguish Native American from European. For Havana, it found 80 percent Euro-Indian and 20 percent African.

Well he is right about it not looking for native Americans Genes. Although more recent studies have shown that Native American is minimal less than 1%, so their assumption to mark it negligible was so off the chart.
From Gonzalez et al(1975)
Quote:
 
Today approximately 500
Indians live in the most isolated mountains of the Oriente province. It was to this
province that their ancestors escaped and survived in complete isolation (Gonzalez
et al., in preparation). The contribution, therefore, of the Indian population to the
Cuban gene pool is negligible, so that the actual gene pool consists only of African
and European genes.
[...]
THE SAMPLE
The sample was arbitrarily made up of whites, mulattoes, and Negroes randomly
chosen from all the donors in the Blood Bank of Havana.
The classification of the three groups was based on the following morphological aspects:
colour of the skin, appearance of the hair, thickness of the lips, nose type, and hairiness.
These features could not be quantitated, but the same trained person classified all the
individuals on the basis of his personal evaluation. To minimize error, each individual was
asked about his racial ancestry.
The morphological variability in the mulatto group was very wide, but instead of
dividing this group into subgroups as done by other investigators [7], we included
"dark" as well as "light" mulattoes.
The sample consisted of 155 whites, 145 mulattoes, and 168 Negroes; all were males.
We can then conclude that a reasonably reliable estimate of the Caucasian and
African genetic admixture in the three groups studied (using only GdA, GdA,
PEPA2 and Hp') is the following: (1) Cuban Caucasians: 5% Negro genes (see
column 1, table 3) and therefore 95%, Caucasian genes; (2) Cuban mulattoes:
537% Caucasian genes (see column 2, table 3) and therefore 47% Negro genes;
59 % (3) Cuban Negroes: 13%o Caucasian genes (see column 4, table 3) and therefore
87%o Negro genes.


Since when does 95% Euro and 5% African turns into 80% Euro/Indian and 20% African. You see delilah, either he is ignorant of the study. Or he lied purposely to prove a point that there can't be such thing as White Cubans, and that they are heavily mixed.

The 1999 Study, it used a lot a samples. The only problem with it, is that one of the alleles that it was using to compared was somehow related to sickle cell and Malaria. So its results might be a little off. Well I find that Blacks were found to have 54% Caucasian genes, definately off, unless they counted mulattoes as Black. And that one found 2-7% Black Admixture in White Cubans from Villa Clara. Check out what the administrator on thestudyofracialism writes.
Quote:
 
The first misunderstanding – You wrote that the 2-7 percent of African admixture measured in “white” Cubans in the Villa Clara study is not what you would call “high.” In my view, it is very high indeed—too high. It is ten times the African admixture found in White USAmericans (which is about 0.7 percent). Recall that this study measured the African admixture only in people who were “classified as white.” That is, it looked only at people having no discernable African features. Despite people like Mark Shriver (utterly European-looking despite significant African admixture) and Rick Kittles (utterly African-looking despite significant European admixture) who demonstrate the luck of the draw difference between external features and internal admixture, over the long pull it is safe to say that in most people, most of the time, the more African admixture you have the more African you look. The break point for USAmericans is around 15-20 percent. People with more admixture than that look at least partially “negroid” to most Americans. And so, if you deliberately choose a population comprising only people who “look white,” the maximum within that population can be no more than 17 percent, the median will be around 8 percent, and the mode and mean will be less than that, probably around 4 percent. That they found a maximum of 7 percent seems suspiciously high to me. That they found a minimum of 2 percent is simply incredible; the minimum should have been zero.

This guys seems to forget that the American Study, which is only one study done in 200+ Individuals failed to find black admixture in 70% of them, the other 30% had a medium admixture of 2.4% or something around that. So he is using the 0.7% again to make it seems very little. Regardless of that. Only one study done should definately not determine what the real admixture is in Colonial WASP or people mixed with Colonial WASP. I think more studies should be done, and rather than only look for black ancestry, how about native american. Because yes people like to claim it, but do they really want to have it. It seems more of Pop culture thing.

Well again done with that whole studyofracialism, I'll concentrate later on the most recent study. I think I might create a separate thread for that one, because it definately need some explanations. I need RR to explain some concepts to me. BTW here an advance of the study. It's only a 17 AIM study(Sample size for whites 71), so admixture could be overestimated. But that's not the only thing that I want to discuss.
Edited by Euskal kubatarrak, Jul 28 2010, 06:17 PM.
Offline Profile Quote Post Goto Top
 
1 user reading this topic (1 Guest and 0 Anonymous)
DealsFor.me - The best sales, coupons, and discounts for you
Go to Next Page
« Previous Topic · Population Genetics · Next Topic »
Add Reply