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Influx of Benin Sickle Cell into Southern Europe predates historical migrations
Topic Started: Jan 17 2010, 01:29 AM (7,193 Views)
Arch Hades
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I was reading this study (thanks to Racial Reality)

Cranial Discrete Traits in a Byzantine Population and Eastern Mediterranean Population Movements
Human Biology , Oct 2008 by Ricaut, F X, Waelkens, M

And I noticed it brought up Sickle Cell in Southern Europe. Now I know we can not use the Benin Sickle Cell frequencies in Southern Europe to quantify Sub Saharan admixture in Europe, as it could have arrived with "mixed" (predominately caucasoid) North Africans or Near Easterners, as well as it's known the gene is considered to be under extremely strong selection in places where Malaria occurs. But I did not know it predated historical migrations. It appears since the discovery of the PN2 clade that the bulk of it in Europe is because of Neolithic migrations.



[blockquote]A late Pleistocene–early Holocene northward migration (from Africa to the
Levant and to Anatolia) of these populations has been hypothesized from skeletal
data (Angel 1972, 1973; Brace et al. 2005) and from archeological data, as
indicated by the probable Nile valley origin of the “Mesolithic” (epi-Paleolithic)
Mushabi culture found in the Levant (Bar Yosef 1987). This migration finds some
support in the presence in Mediterranean populations (Sicily, Greece, southern
Turkey, etc.; Patrinos et al. 2001; Schiliro et al. 1990) of the Benin sickle cell
haplotype. This haplotype originated in West Africa and is probably associated
with the spread of malaria to southern Europe through an eastern Mediterranean
route (Salares et al. 2004) following the expansion of both human and mosquito
populations brought about by the advent of the Neolithic transition
(Hume et al.
2003; Joy et al. 2003; Rich et al. 1998). This northward migration of northeastern
African populations carrying sub-Saharan biological elements is concordant with
the morphological homogeneity of the Natufian populations (Bocquentin 2003),
which present morphological affinity with sub-Saharan populations (Angel 1972;
Brace et al. 2005). In addition, the Neolithic revolution was assumed to arise
in the late Pleistocene Natufians and subsequently spread into Anatolia and Europe
(Bar-Yosef 2002), and the first Anatolian farmers, Neolithic to Bronze Age
Mediterraneans and to some degree other Neolithic–Bronze Age Europeans, show
morphological affinities with the Natufians (and indirectly with sub-Saharan populations;
Angel 1972; Brace et al. 2005), in concordance with a process of demic
diffusion accompanying the extension of the Neolithic revolution (Cavalli-Sforza
et al. 1994).
[/blockquote]
Edited by Arch Hades, Jul 14 2011, 02:33 PM.
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Flashrad
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is there a proof for the western african origin of the sickle cell? otherwise, we cant labell it as sub-saharan.
why is it absent in northwestern africa, but present in southern italia and anatolia?
Posted Image

plus the sickle cell isnt african in origin as The origin of the mutation that led to the sickle-cell gene was initially thought to be in the Arabian peninsula, spreading to Asia and Africa. It is now known, from evaluation of chromosome structures, that there have been at least four independent mutational events, three in Africa and a fourth in either Saudi Arabia or central India. These independent events occurred between 3,000 and 6,000 generations ago, approximately 70-150,000 years. the benin variant seems to be the dominant one in south eastern europe. dont know why and it is not impossible that it originated in north africa and then spread in sub-sahara as well as europe.
Edited by Flashrad, Jan 17 2010, 05:44 AM.
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Grasshoppa
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^Oh good God. Give it a rest, you obviously have negrophobia. You tend to try your hardest to prove that Sub-Saharans did not in any way mix with people to the north.
Edited by Grasshoppa, Jan 17 2010, 02:18 PM.
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Charlie Bass
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Grasshoppa
Jan 17 2010, 02:16 PM
^Oh good God. Give it a rest, you obviously have negrophobia. You tend to try your hardest to prove that Sub-Saharans did not in any way mix with people to the north.
Yes he is Negrophobic, if the Benin haplotype originated in North Africa why is called Benin? These Negrophobes make the same suggestions and conclusions without any evidence.
Y chromosone haplogroup: E3b1a7a-West African

mtDNA haplogroup: L4b2- East/Northeast African.
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Crimson Guard
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Bass, the pot calling the kettle black, hah.

Blood groups arent significant, and means nothing. It was an erroneous method of population studies, even for during its brief time of usage it was criticized.

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Charlie Bass
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Jan 17 2010, 04:08 PM
Bass, the pot calling the kettle black, hah.

Blood groups arent significant, and means nothing. It was an erroneous method of population studies, even for during its brief time of usage it was criticized.

Lies:

Understanding Sickle Cell Disease (Understanding Health and Sickness Series) (Paperback)
~ Ph.D., Miriam Bloom (Author)


Posted Image

Y chromosone haplogroup: E3b1a7a-West African

mtDNA haplogroup: L4b2- East/Northeast African.
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Arch Hades
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Jan 17 2010, 04:08 PM
Bass, the pot calling the kettle black, hah.

Blood groups arent significant, and means nothing. It was an erroneous method of population studies, even for during its brief time of usage it was criticized.

Blood groups are not totally irrelevant, they are just incredibly inferior in understanding population history to that of Y Chromosome and mtDNA data.
Charlie Bass
Jan 17 2010, 04:16 PM
Crimson Guard
Jan 17 2010, 04:08 PM
Bass, the pot calling the kettle black, hah.

Blood groups arent significant, and means nothing. It was an erroneous method of population studies, even for during its brief time of usage it was criticized.

Lies:

Understanding Sickle Cell Disease (Understanding Health and Sickness Series) (Paperback)
~ Ph.D., Miriam Bloom (Author)


Posted Image

It's impossible to tell who in Europe carries sickle cell because of recent admixture (Moors, Arabs, Carthaginians etc), or because of Neolithic populations gradually bringing it up. Surely the original E1b1b carries carried the gene, and E1b1b arose in Eastern Africa. Why does Greece and Italy have significantly higher Sickel Cell frequencies to that of Iberia? Despite Iberia in historical times having much greater contacts with Africa? Because SouthEAST Europeans carry a very high amount E1b1b (particularly E-V13 which is a Mesolithic Balkan marker). This alone means most of it in Southeastern Europe probably stems from neolithic migrations. As Y chromosome and mtDNA studies do not show recent sub saharan markers in modern Southern Europeans anywhere near the degree of the Sickle Cell frequencies.
Edited by Arch Hades, Jan 17 2010, 08:08 PM.
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Crimson Guard
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Blood groups are useless, case closed and grow up.

Uselessness of Blood Groups
http://racialreality.blogspot.com/2005/08/uselessness-of-blood-groups.html
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Charlie Bass
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Jan 17 2010, 08:32 PM
Blood groups are useless, case closed and grow up.

Uselessness of Blood Groups
http://racialreality.blogspot.com/2005/08/uselessness-of-blood-groups.html
Your source doesn't even say that, quit being a charlatan repeating what people say. Also, the sickle cell gene is *NOT* a blood type, so your link is irrelevant.
Edited by Charlie Bass, Jan 17 2010, 09:30 PM.
Y chromosone haplogroup: E3b1a7a-West African

mtDNA haplogroup: L4b2- East/Northeast African.
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Delilah
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This is an interesting topic but one which I don't know much about. From what I read though sickle-cell disease is found in Africa, Southern Europe, the Middle East and India. If it is so widespread how can they (the scientists) know exactly where it originated? And yes it is a gene not a blood group.
"Let nothing disturb you. Let nothing frighten you. All things pass. God does not change. Patience achieves everything. Whoever has God lacks nothing. God alone suffices." St. Teresa of Avila
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Charlie Bass
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Delilah
Jan 17 2010, 09:50 PM
This is an interesting topic but one which I don't know much about. From what I read though sickle-cell disease is found in Africa, Southern Europe, the Middle East and India. If it is so widespread how can they (the scientists) know exactly where it originated? And yes it is a gene not a blood group.
The Benin, Bantu, Cameroon and Senegalese haplotypes are African in orgin, the Saudi-Asian trait is the non-African one, though some Saudis and Arabs do carry the African variants because of mixture Africans. The sickle cell trait doesn't appear in all Africans, but its incidence is higher in Africa than in any other place.
Y chromosone haplogroup: E3b1a7a-West African

mtDNA haplogroup: L4b2- East/Northeast African.
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Flashrad
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anyway, we dont know its origin and scientists think its african because of the high frequency found in africa. but in reality, we dont know how to interpret its origins to date, there is no enough informations. all we can do is hypothesis and that, everybody can do it. in fact the benin haplotype is called benin only cause its found at highest frequencies there but it can be from somewhere else as well. previously, the sickle cell was thought to have originated in arabia and then spread to all other areas. by the discoveries of the different variants, this was excluded from most scientists s views.
Edited by Flashrad, Jan 17 2010, 11:09 PM.
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Charlie Bass
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Flashrad
Jan 17 2010, 11:03 PM
anyway, we dont know its origin and scientists think its african because of the high frequency found in africa. but in reality, we dont know how to interpret its origins to date, there is no enough informations. all we can do is hypothesis and that, everybody can do it. in fact the benin haplotype is called benin only cause its found at highest frequencies there but it can be from somewhere else as well. previously, it was thought to have originated in arabia and then spread to all other areas. by the discoveries of the different variants, this was excluded from most scientists s views.
Are you hard of reading or are just so damn Negrophobic that your eyes become blind? The sickle cell trait arose independently several times in tropical place. There is one non-African variant and the rest are African, its didn't arise in anyone specific place and evolve into 5 separate variants. It was never thought to have originated in Saudi Arabia and Saudis do carry a non-African type of sickle cell trait in addition to Africans ones trough mixture with Africans. The information out there does confirm its origins, your Negrophobia wants to cast doubt on it, stop trolling.
Y chromosone haplogroup: E3b1a7a-West African

mtDNA haplogroup: L4b2- East/Northeast African.
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Racial Awareness
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The prevalence of the sickle cell trait in the Mediterranean region and elsewhere, apart from Africa, is because of convergent evolution in response to similar malarial conditions, not negroid admixture.
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Charlie Bass
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Jan 17 2010, 11:58 PM
The prevalence of the sickle cell trait in the Mediterranean region and elsewhere, apart from Africa, is because of convergent evolution in response to similar malarial conditions, not negroid admixture.
The sickle cell trait arrive from Africa into the Mediterranean countries and did not develop independently there through convergent evolution, they even carry the Benin sickle cell trait.
Y chromosone haplogroup: E3b1a7a-West African

mtDNA haplogroup: L4b2- East/Northeast African.
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Flashrad
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And if it was from any negroid admixture, then african/black(dont think for e3b) haplogroups, both mt and y dna, would have been much more higher in sicily.
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Delilah
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Initially the single mutation theory was postulated in which it was conveyed that a single mutation occurred in Neolithic times in the then fertile Arabian Peninsula11. Then, the changing climatic conditions and conversion of this area to a desert caused the migration of people that could have carried the gene to India, Eastern Saudi Arabia and down to Equatorial Africa. This hypothesis was supported by citing the distribution of certain agricultural practices and anthropological evidences.

But it is now quite clear that the sickle cell mutation has occurred as several independent events. By using a series of different restriction endonucleases, different chromosome structures (haplotypes) are identified and Hb S gene has been found to be linked to certain commonly occurring haplotypes that are generally different from those bearing the Hb A gene12, 13.

In Africa the Hb S gene is associated with at least three haplotypes representing independent mutations.14, 15 They are the Benin haplotype, the Senegal haplotype and the Central African Republic or the Bantu haplotype found in the central west Africa, the African west coast and the Central Africa (Bantu speaking Africa) respectively. A fourth haplotype, the Asian haplotype is found in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia and central India.

It appears that the sickle cell mutation has occurred on at least three occasions in the African continent and at least once in either the Arabian Peninsula or the Central India and from the primary sites the migration to the other regions has occurred. This can explain the observation made by many investigators that there is wide spread chromosomal heterogeneity of Bs gene cluster haplotypes in United States as compared to the homozygous condition in Africa, Arab or Asia.16 The slaves with sickle cell trait who were exported from various parts of Africa to United States had the specific Bs gene haplotype found in their region but after arrival in US, Jamaica and Brazil, over the years there have been considerable admixture of African ethnic groups.14,17,18 Available calculations suggest that this gene has developed between 3000 and 6000 generations, approximately 70000-150000 years ago.19, 20

The existence of haplotypes specific to certain regions of the world suggests that the mutant beta globin gene arose separately in these locations.21 All of the areas in question have been or are now endemic locations of malarial infestation. This observation is consistent with the idea that the high incidence of sickle mutation in these areas is derived from natural selection.22 The mutation that produces sickle hemoglobin occurs spontaneously at a low rate. People with one sickle hemoglobin gene and one normal hemoglobin gene (sickle cell trait) are somewhat more resistant to malaria than people with two normal hemoglobin genes. The widely accepted theory is that Hb S offers selective protection against falciparum malaria probably because of induction of sickling even at physiological oxygen tension by P. falciparum followed by sequestration of parasitized red cells deep with in reticulo-endothelial system where microenvironment is hostile for parasite growth. 23, 24 Thus people with sickle cell trait would have a better chance of surviving an outbreak of malaria and passing their genes (sickle and normal hemoglobin) to the next generation when they have children. The remarkable stability of sickle gene in Africa which allows it to remain at a relatively constant level in a population without being eliminated is thought to be because of most widely accepted theory of balanced polymorphism. 25,26,27

The Senegal haplotype is represented most prominently in Senegal and in the most western regions of Africa above Niger River. The Benin haplotype designates those found in Nigeria, Benin and countries in the right of the Benin. The Bantu or CAR haplotype encompasses those haplotypes discovered in the Central African Republic and countries in south central Africa.

The existence of identical haplotypes in India and in the Persian Gulf region lacks an obvious explanation. Sickle cell disease in India exists mainly in tribal populations, who to this day remain relatively isolated from the mainstream of the society. The likelihood is low that an influx of a sickle cell gene from outside India occurred to a degree to account for rates of heterozygosity that reach up to 35% in some tribes. Although current information precludes a conclusive answer, gene flow from India to the Persian Gulf area through commerce and migration seems the more likely scenario.

Interestingly, there are small pockets of sickle genes of the African haplotypes in the regions along India's western coast. Sickle cell disease here exists in the descendants of African people who came to India during the mogul period, often as “praetorian guards” for the Indian princes.

It seems from this one article that RA is right. http://www.ispub.com/ostia/index.php?xmlFilePath=journals/ijhe/vol1n2/sickle.xml

@RA However there is no need to refer to someone's color in order to make a point.
Edited by Delilah, Jan 18 2010, 12:36 AM.
"Let nothing disturb you. Let nothing frighten you. All things pass. God does not change. Patience achieves everything. Whoever has God lacks nothing. God alone suffices." St. Teresa of Avila
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Charlie Bass
Jan 18 2010, 12:12 AM
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Jan 17 2010, 11:58 PM
The prevalence of the sickle cell trait in the Mediterranean region and elsewhere, apart from Africa, is because of convergent evolution in response to similar malarial conditions, not negroid admixture.
The sickle cell trait arrive from Africa into the Mediterranean countries and did not develop independently there through convergent evolution, they even carry the Benin sickle cell trait.
Negro, the plasmodium parasite is found in most of the tropical or subtropical regions of the world and those populations which were exposed to it developed sickle cell as a convergent evolutionary trait.
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Charlie Bass
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Jan 18 2010, 12:33 AM
Charlie Bass
Jan 18 2010, 12:12 AM
Racial Awareness
Jan 17 2010, 11:58 PM
The prevalence of the sickle cell trait in the Mediterranean region and elsewhere, apart from Africa, is because of convergent evolution in response to similar malarial conditions, not negroid admixture.
The sickle cell trait arrive from Africa into the Mediterranean countries and did not develop independently there through convergent evolution, they even carry the Benin sickle cell trait.
Negro, the plasmodium parasite is found in most of the tropical or subtropical regions of the world and those populations which were exposed to it developed sickle cell as a convergent evolutionary trait.
So explain how the *BENIN* haplotype ended up in Southern Europe? THE FREQUENCY increased via selection, but the haplotype itself arrived from Africa.
Y chromosone haplogroup: E3b1a7a-West African

mtDNA haplogroup: L4b2- East/Northeast African.
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Charlie Bass
Jan 18 2010, 12:38 AM
So explain how the *BENIN* haplotype ended up in Southern Europe? THE FREQUENCY increased via selection, but the haplotype itself arrived from Africa.
Negro, can't you read? Similar haplotypes arose in different regions of the globe because of convergent evolution in response to similar patterns of localized malarial infestation. Hemoglobin S has nothing to do with race, negro.
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