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Black history in Puerto Rico
Topic Started: Apr 13 2009, 02:55 AM (1,258 Views)
Sampr
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_history_in_Puerto_Rico

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Black history in Puerto Rico begins with the African freeman who arrived with the Spanish Conquistadors. The Spaniards enslaved the Tainos, who were the native inhabitants of the island, and many of them died as a result of the treatment that they had received. This presented a problem for the Spanish Crown, since they depended on slavery as a means of manpower for the mines and construction of forts. Their solution was to import slaves from Africa and, as a consequence, the vast majority of the Africans who immigrated to Puerto Rico did so as a result of the slave trade from many different areas of the African continent.

When the gold mines in Puerto Rico were declared depleted, the Spanish Crown no longer held Puerto Rico as a high colonial priority, and the island became a garrison for naval vessels. Africans from British and French possessions in the Caribbean were encouraged to emigrate to Puerto Rico, thereby providing a population base to support the Puerto Rican garrison. The Spanish decree of 1789 allowed the slaves to earn or buy their freedom, however this did little to help their situation. Many slaves eventually rebelled, most notably in an event known as the "Grito de Lares", and on March 22, 1873, slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico. Their contributions to music, art, language, and heritage has become the foundation of Puerto Rican culture
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Sampr
Senior Member
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http://www.cosmos.ne.jp/~miyagawa/nagocnet/data/prhistory.html

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Puerto Rico's African Heritage

Some scholars believe that there is evidence of an African presence in the Americas prior to the Spanish arrival in the late fifteenth century. Archeological studies have discovered what may be African artifacts and human skeletons in parts of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean that predate the Europeans by at least 2,000 years. For example, evidence of exchanges between the great Olmec culture of Mexico and the Nubian-Kemetic cultures of Africa during the period 1450-800 BC has been found in La Venta and Palenque in Mexico.
Between 1310 and 1491 AD Mandingo merchant explorers from Africa made more than fifty trips to various Caribbean and Central and South American points.
In addition, the Spanish themselves were deeply influenced by African culture. The Moors of North Africa had a permanent impact on the development of Spanish history, art, and culture through their occupation of Spanish territory, which lasted approximately 800 years. Free Africans, known as libertos, originally travelled with the Spanish conquistadors to the Americas. A liberto was a man or woman of African origin who came to settle in Puerto Rico from Spain. Two examples are:
Juan Gariido, who accompanied Juan Ponce de Leon (the first governor of Puerto Rico assigned by the Spanish crown) in exploring the coast of Florida in 1506. Gariido is also known for bringing the first wheat and other new vegetable seeds to the Americas.
Francisco Gallego, the first Spanish entrepreneur of African origin in Puerto Rico.
Enslaved Africans were sold to the Spanish by Portuguese slavers working from ports in central-west Africa. African slaves were brought first to the Caribbean islands and from there to other parts of the Americas. The entire Western Hemisphere, including the Caribbean as well as North, Central, and South America, has a common African ancestry, originating from central-west Africa. Historians estimate that anywhere from fifteen to fifty million Africans were taken from Africa between 1482 and 1888. The lack of food and extreme physical abuses experienced in the Middle Passage across the Atlantic often killed up to a third of the enslaved Africans.
As early as 1514, enslaved Tainos and Africans in Puerto Rico joined forces in revolt against slavery. By 1848 more than twenty revolts had occurred. Cimarrones (fugitive slaves) planned individual escapes and collective revolts. Many cimarrones would escape to the remote mountains of the island or even other Caribbean or Central or South American lands, where they formed free communities. Some of their descendants survive to this day, especially along the Atlantic Coast of Central and South America. Many others were killed in heroic attempts to obtain their freedom.
Throughout the 365 years of slavery in Puerto Rico, there was also a large pupulation of free Puerto Ricans of African descent. In addition to revolting or escaping, slaves could also negotiate to buy their freedom and that of their families. Most free Puerto Ricans of African descent, as well as mulatos or mestizos, worked in a variety of occupations such as agriculture or domestic labor, or as artisans, merchants, or ship hands. Many continues the struggle against slavery and racism, becoming abolitionists and freedom fighters. People of African descent have made pronounced contributions to Puerto Rico's historical, social, intellectual, artistic, and cultural development.
African influence may also be traced in many words from African languages that have become a permanent part of Puerto Rican Spanish (and, in some cases, English): mango (mango), candungo (storage pot), mofongo (a plantain dish), mondongo (a stew), guineo (banana), or chevere (good!). Puerto Rican musical instruments such as la clave (also known as par de palos or "two sticks"), drums with stretched animal skin such as bongos or congas, and Puerto Rican music-dance forms such as la bomba or la plena are likewise rooted in Africa.
Puerto Rican cuisine also has a strong African influence.
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YigalSchmendrik
Ñaquechuexe xepirriñi
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Samuel
Apr 13 2009, 02:57 AM
http://www.cosmos.ne.jp/~miyagawa/nagocnet/data/prhistory.html

Quote:
 
Puerto Rico's African Heritage

Some scholars believe that there is evidence of an African presence in the Americas prior to the Spanish arrival in the late fifteenth century. Archeological studies have discovered what may be African artifacts and human skeletons in parts of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean that predate the Europeans by at least 2,000 years. For example, evidence of exchanges between the great Olmec culture of Mexico and the Nubian-Kemetic cultures of Africa during the period 1450-800 BC has been found in La Venta and Palenque in Mexico.
Between 1310 and 1491 AD Mandingo merchant explorers from Africa made more than fifty trips to various Caribbean and Central and South American points.
In addition, the Spanish themselves were deeply influenced by African culture. The Moors of North Africa had a permanent impact on the development of Spanish history, art, and culture through their occupation of Spanish territory, which lasted approximately 800 years. Free Africans, known as libertos, originally travelled with the Spanish conquistadors to the Americas. A liberto was a man or woman of African origin who came to settle in Puerto Rico from Spain. Two examples are:
Juan Gariido, who accompanied Juan Ponce de Leon (the first governor of Puerto Rico assigned by the Spanish crown) in exploring the coast of Florida in 1506. Gariido is also known for bringing the first wheat and other new vegetable seeds to the Americas.
Francisco Gallego, the first Spanish entrepreneur of African origin in Puerto Rico.
Enslaved Africans were sold to the Spanish by Portuguese slavers working from ports in central-west Africa. African slaves were brought first to the Caribbean islands and from there to other parts of the Americas. The entire Western Hemisphere, including the Caribbean as well as North, Central, and South America, has a common African ancestry, originating from central-west Africa. Historians estimate that anywhere from fifteen to fifty million Africans were taken from Africa between 1482 and 1888. The lack of food and extreme physical abuses experienced in the Middle Passage across the Atlantic often killed up to a third of the enslaved Africans.
As early as 1514, enslaved Tainos and Africans in Puerto Rico joined forces in revolt against slavery. By 1848 more than twenty revolts had occurred. Cimarrones (fugitive slaves) planned individual escapes and collective revolts. Many cimarrones would escape to the remote mountains of the island or even other Caribbean or Central or South American lands, where they formed free communities. Some of their descendants survive to this day, especially along the Atlantic Coast of Central and South America. Many others were killed in heroic attempts to obtain their freedom.
Throughout the 365 years of slavery in Puerto Rico, there was also a large pupulation of free Puerto Ricans of African descent. In addition to revolting or escaping, slaves could also negotiate to buy their freedom and that of their families. Most free Puerto Ricans of African descent, as well as mulatos or mestizos, worked in a variety of occupations such as agriculture or domestic labor, or as artisans, merchants, or ship hands. Many continues the struggle against slavery and racism, becoming abolitionists and freedom fighters. People of African descent have made pronounced contributions to Puerto Rico's historical, social, intellectual, artistic, and cultural development.
African influence may also be traced in many words from African languages that have become a permanent part of Puerto Rican Spanish (and, in some cases, English): mango (mango), candungo (storage pot), mofongo (a plantain dish), mondongo (a stew), guineo (banana), or chevere (good!). Puerto Rican musical instruments such as la clave (also known as par de palos or "two sticks"), drums with stretched animal skin such as bongos or congas, and Puerto Rican music-dance forms such as la bomba or la plena are likewise rooted in Africa.
Puerto Rican cuisine also has a strong African influence.
That article is suspect if mondongo is of african origin than why do all the countries below mexico(which calls it Panzita) till all the way down call tripe that?
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Sampr
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Because there were also African slaves, but in minor quantities.
Edited by Sampr, Apr 13 2009, 03:06 AM.
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