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Attack on WTC 1; Behind the Curtains
Topic Started: May 25 2009, 08:52 AM (23,122 Views)
Miragememories
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The following material is extracted from NK-44's Investigation into the collapse of WTC 1. I've been assisting him in the english language translation from its original german.

About 2 months ago, when his paper was in its final stages and ready for online publication, he abruptly ceased communication. I'm posting the most recent revisions because I think it's important that 9/11 researchers have access to NK-44's work.

Quoted material is in BLUE

http://news.boisestate.edu/update/updatearchive/2003/09112003/0911meetbillpekrol.html

""Bill is one of those survivors and was on the 72nd floor of the North Tower when that first plane hit at 8:47 a.m. attending a meeting with thirty people. The public address system issued its "all is safe" announcement. Bill and two attendees left the meeting after the building swayed and shook and numerous explosions set off by the jet fuel. Bill climbed down all 72 floors but when he arrived in the lobby of the Tower, 20 elevators exploded from the plane’s jet fuel... the noise was horrendous and the tower was beginning to collapse.

Bill spent the next three months in St. Vincent's Hospital where he clinically died twice but was resuscitated. He saw "the light," the tunnel, angels, and his sister who died seventeen years ago. He was unconscious the first twenty days he spent in the hospital and was told he would probably not walk again. Bill sustained fuel burns on the dorsal sides of both hands and suffered three skull fractures, a crushed knee, a broken jaw, burned corneas, and a lacerated abdomen that required 200 stitches to close. His injuries were sustained from steel beams that were blowing apart. Later, Bill was told that he was brought out of the North Tower unconscious and less than five minutes before it collapsed."


Around the time that the North Tower (WTC 1) was hit by American Airline Flight 11, explosions occurred in the basement. According to official accounts, jet-fuel coming down elevator-shafts was the cause of these explosions.

From the 9/11-Commission Report:

"A jet fuel fireball erupted upon impact and shot down at least one bank of elevators. The fireball exploded onto numerous floors, including the 77th and 22nd; the West Street lobby level; and the B4 level, four stories below ground."
(Ch.9, p.285)


From National Institue of Standard and Technology (NIST):

"The aircraft impacting on the towers caused major damage to the buildings. In addition, the jet fuel distribution through the buildings and down the elevator shafts generated large fires. The elevator shafts inside WTC 1 contained a fast moving jet fuel droplet cloud fire which damaged shaft walls, elevator doors, and floors near the elevator shafts due to the over pressures that were generated (NIST NCSTAR 1-2 and NIST NCSTAR 1-5)."
(NIST NCSTAR 1-8, p.42)


Note: this statement is not related to the situation in the basement, since NIST NCSTAR 1-2 and 1-5 do not cover the fires and damage in the basement. But NIST then continues with a special reference to the lower floors:

"In addition, in first-person interviews PAPD personnel reported a huge fireball that came from the elevator shafts and filled the visible volume of the Concourse level between WTC 1 and the entrance to the Mariott hotel."


A page further, it is stated:

"The jet fuel had gone down the elevator shaft and had blown out the elevator doors and that is why the lobby windows were blown out and why interviewees had seen seriously burned people in the lobby. (Inside WTC 1)"
(NIST NCSTAR 1-8, p.43) http://wtc.nist.gov/NCSTAR1/NCSTAR1-8index.htm

But this version of events is rejected even by most supporters of the jet-fuel explanation.

For two reasons. First, the initial fireballs generated no great overpressures:

"Although dramatic, these fireballs did not explode or generate a shock wave. If an explosion or detonation had occurred, the expansion of the burning gasses would have taken place in microseconds, not the 2 seconds observed. Therefore, although there were some overpressures, it is unlikely that the fireballs, being external to the buildings, would have resulted in significant structural damage. It is not known whether the windows that were broken shortly after impact were broken by these external overpressures, overpressures internal to the building, the heat of the fire, or flying debris."
(FEMA WTC report, chapter 2)


That these same fireballs, which may or may not have destroyed windows in the impact area, also destroyed several walls and caused cave-ins 400 meters below, is not substantiated.

Secondly, these fireballs during their long descent would have excluded (almost) every floor from their destructive force, while releasing it exclusively at the basement levels.

For this reason, most supporters of the jet fuel theory do not claim that the basement damage was a result of the initial fireball, but of jet-fuel, which spilled down to the basement where it ignited and exploded.

So, it is safe to say, we have two official versions. The "original" or "official" official version, and an "alternative" official version. In both versions, elevator shafts serve as a jet-fuel spillway from the impact zone to the basement.

Continued in my next post....

MM (for NK-44)
Edited by Miragememories, May 25 2009, 04:47 PM.
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TDX
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please, see my post about the express elevator shafts and the IB, see the youtube video, you will find the truh and maybe some reasons why he ceased the communication
Edited by TDX, May 25 2009, 09:29 AM.
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The Elevators

WTC North Tower Elevator Lay-Out


"From the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST):
The World Trade Center complex contained more than 240 elevators, with 99 elevators serving the above-ground levels in each of the two main towers and an additional 7 elevators serving primarily the sub-grade basement levels. In the towers, the elevators were arranged to serve the buildings in three sections divided by skylobbies, which served to distribute passengers among express and local elevators. Figure 2-14 shows an elevator riser diagram for WTC 1 and WTC 2 for passenger elevators.

* People traveling to floors 9 through 40 entered a bank of 24 elevators at the Concourse Level. These were divided into four groups, with each stopping at a different set of eight or nine floors (9 through 16, 17 through 24, 25 through 31, and 32 through 40).

* Those going to floors 44 through 74 took one of eight express elevators to the 44th floor skylobby before transferring to one of 24 local elevators, These 24 were stacked on top of the of the lower bank of 24, providing additional transport without increasing the occupied floor space.

* Those going to floors 78 through 107 took one of 10 express elevators from the Concourse Level to the 78th floor before transferring to one of 24 local elevators. These were also stacked on the lower banks of 24.

An occupant traveling to the 91st floor, for example, would have taken an express elevator from the lobby to the 78th floor and then would have had to transfer to another elevator to arrive at the 91st floor. While providing an
acceptable rate of people movement, this three tier system also used less of the building footprint than the usual systems in which all elevators run from the entrance to the top of the building. Further, leasable floor space was reclaimed near the top of a given zone. At the top of each elevator bank, the machinery to lift the cabs occupied the next higher floor. From the next higher floor up to the bottom of the next elevator bank, there was no need for an elevator shaft. The concrete floor was extended into this space, providing additional rentable floor are for offices, conference rooms, storage, etc. Fig 2-14, for example, shows that the space taken by Elevator Bank A (Elevators 24 - 29) in order to serve floor 9 to floor 16, was reclaimed for tenant use on floors 19 to 42."


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"In addition to the passenger elevators, there were seven freight elevators in
each tower, most served a particular 'zone', while Car 50 served every floor.
* Car # 5: B1-5, 7, 9-40, 44
* Car #6: B1-5, 44, 75, 77-107 (Dual-use express)
* Car #17: B1-1, 41, 43-78
* Car #48: B1-7, 9-40
* Car #49: B1-5, 41-74
* Car # 50: B6 - 108
* Car # 99: 107-116
There were two express elevators (#6 and #7) to Windows on the World (and related conference rooms and banquet facilities) in WTC 1 and two to the observation deck in WTC 2. There were five local elevators in each building, three that brought people from the subterranean levels to the lobby, one that ran between floors 106 and 110, and one that ran between floors 43 and 44, serving the cafeteria from the skylobby. All elevators had been upgraded to incorporate firefighter emergency operation requirements."

(NIST NCSTAR 1-7, p.32 - PDF)


So there were three elevators running from the basement to the top. The main freight elevator 50, served every floor from Basement 6 to the 108th floor. In addition, two express elevators - Car 6 and 7 - served only particular floors. They both ran from Basement 1 up to "Windows on the World" on the 107th floor. They both shared the same shaft and though their lowest door opening was in basement level 1, their shafts went as deep as basement level 4.

Here you can see their locations (red marked), on the south side, opposite to the plane impact side:

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This is further established by the floor plans, http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/evidence/blueprints.html which were made available through an anonymous source in March 2007. By examining the core plans for sublevels 3-5, it can be observed that the shaft of Car 6 and 7 ended at Basement 4, and that the shaft of Car 50 terminated at Basement 6.

Note that these original floor plans for the basement floors are labeled differently than the corresponding NIST drawings.
Floor plans Service level = B1 (NIST)
Floor plans Sub-level 1 = B2 (NIST)
Floor plans Sub-level 2 = B3 (NIST)
Floor plans Sub-level 3 = B4 (NIST)
Floor plans Sub-level 4 = B5 (NIST)
Floor plans Sub-level 5 = B6 (NIST)

In this paper, the basement floors will be referred to as B1-B6.

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Above Car 50 in Basement 6

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Car 50 in Basement 5


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Car 50 in Basement 4. Beneath are Car 6 and 7, sharing one shaft


The NIST's misguiding "stacked on each other"

One particularly important point needs to be addressed: Due to misleading phrasing in the NIST-reports, many people are drawn to the false conclusion that there were more than two continuing shafts. Read again from the above the NIST-quote:

* "Those going to floors 44 through 74 took one of eight express elevators to the 44th floor skylobby before transferring to one of 24 local elevators. These 24 were stacked on top of the of the lower bank of 24, providing additional transport without increasing the occupied floor space.

* Those going to floors 78 through 107 took one of 10 express elevators from the Concourse Level to the 78th floor before transferring to one of 24 local elevators. These were also stacked on the lower banks of 24."


And here are more quotes:

"In order to minimize the total floor space needed for elevators, each tower was divided vertically into three zones by skylobbies, which served to distribute passengers among express and local elevators. In this way, the local elevators within a zone were placed on top of one another within a common shaft". (NIST NCSTAR1-1, Executive Summary XXXVII )

"The concept of multiple elevators within a common shaft was first used in the WTC towers and has since become the norm for buildings taller than about 50 stories." (NIST NCSTAR1-1, p.9 )


This leaves the impression that different elevators shared the same shaft. That they were stacked on top of each other to save floor space. Though it would not be technically possible, people often raise this point in order to prove that there were more than two continuous shafts.

To end these false assumptions, it's only necessary to closely examine the floor plans.

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All four elevator banks occupying floor space



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Bank A terminates, giving these levels more floor space

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Bank B terminates, giving these levels more floor space

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Bank C terminates, giving these levels more floor space

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Here is the 42nd floor upper mechanical room, bank D terminates
to allow for the motor to be installed over the shaft


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This is the bank D elevator elevation drawing.
http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/evidence/blueprints.html

Note that the shaft terminates and does not continue above the mechanical room. Looking at the top of the drawing it can be noted that the mechanical room is sealed by the 43rd floor. Above this area on the 43rd floor the drawing shows toilets and a new zone 2 elevator shaft pit. Hence the elevators are stacked.

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This is the 43rd floor which shows the position of the
toilets and the new zone 2 elevator shaft pits


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Here is the 44th floor lobby starting off again. Notice the local
elevators are in the same positions, hence they are “stacked”


It's now been established that there were only two shafts continuously running from the impact area of WTC 1 (floors 93-98) down to basement levels. One (Car 50) ended in B6, the other one (Car 6/7), ended in B4.


Elevators 6 and 7

On 9/11, elevators 6 and 7 were out of operation, which will be established through different sources - because it's important that this point be investigated.

First, from the NIST:

"Elevators 6A and 7A were out of service for modernization." (NIST NCSTAR 1-8, p.43)

Since elevators during maintenance usually are parked at the floors representing their lowest point of descent, and since 6 and 7 had only door openings at one basement level, Basement 1, it can be concluded that those cars were parked at Basement 1.

Secondly, an ABC-Report states that they were out of order for at least a month.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?gl=GB&hl=en-GB&v=DNQS0wRtFMs
(Though the reporter does not specify which tower, it can be concluded that he was referring to the North Tower, since elevators 6 and 7 in the South Tower
were working on 9/11).

Thirdly, visual evidence.

It is known, that to get to the "Windows on the World“- Restaurant, it was necessary to take express
elevator 6 or 7.

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"The Greatest Bar on Earth" sign indicates where to go if you want to ascend to the "Windows on the World". On 9/11, since 6/7 were out of service, the sign was placed in front of the north elevator bank.

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Note the red-pink sign "Greatest Bar on Earth"

Note also the construction fence in front of elevators 20 and 21 (lower left of photo), which were also out of service on 9/11.

For comparison, the same point of view before 9/11, without the sign:

Posted Image

Two things are important to keep in mind: Firstly, 6 and 7 were out of service on 9/11. Thus, their doors weren't open on the lobby or basement levels. Access for the mechanics was provided by a door in the lowest level of the shaft, Basement 4. From this it can be concluded that no jet-fuel from within the shaft was able to build an explosive mixture with the air from outside, neither in the lobby or the basement floors.

Secondly, according to the NIST these cars were parked at Basement 1 - which is their lowest descent floor and where cars usually are parked during maintenance. These elevator cars were burned, but not destroyed. From that it can also be concluded that the walls of shaft 6/7 in the basement were not destroyed, otherwise the elevator cars could not have been observed remaining in their parked position.


Elevator 50

This is what witnesses had to tell about their experience in Car 50, the main freight elevator, which as well as 6 and 7, was the third elevator with a shaft reaching into the impact zone.

Arturo Griffith, operated WTC1 elevator Car 50:
"[The Griffiths] were both operating elevators in the north tower on Sept. 11.
Arturo was running 50A, the big freight car going from the six-level basement to the 108th floor. When American Airlines Flight 11 struck at 8:46 a.m., Arturo and a co-worker were heading from the second-level basement to the 49th floor.

Like his wife, who had just closed the doors on a passenger elevator leaving the 78th floor, Arturo heard a sudden whistling sound and the impact. Cables were severed and Arturo's car plunged into free fall."


From CNN:

"ARTURO GRIFFITH, WTC SURVIVOR: I was running 58 cars -- the elevators
that going to 86 to 108th floor.

KING: Where were you when it happened?

A. GRIFFITH: Well, I was on my way from B-2 to 49th floor. And as I took off, it was amount it was a matter of seconds -- five, six, seven seconds, I don't know. And there was a loud explosion and the elevator dropped. And when the elevator dropped there was a lot of debris and cables falling on top of the elevator. And I just -- I just put my hand over my head and I said, oh God I'm going to die. But I didn't know what was happening.

When the elevator finally stopped, they had an explosion that bring the doors inside the elevator, and I think I'm sure that that was what broke my leg. And then they had another explosion and the panel that threw me, you know, against the wall, and I guess I was unconscious for a couple of minutes because somebody else was in the elevator with me, and they say that they was trying to get my attention and they didn't get no response from me."

http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0110/06/lklw.00.html

Note that he reports three explosion-events. The first caused the elevator to fall and is attributed to the plane impact, cutting the elevator cables with subsequent falling of debris on top of the car. After the car stopped, which was seconds after the plane impact, a second explosion occurred and pushed the doors inside and injured his knee. Therefore it was originating from outside the elevator shaft. The third explosion pushed him against a wall. If these explosions were the result of jet-fuel, Griffith should have noticed a fireball. From another article, the exact location the elevator stopped is revealed:

"Arturo Griffith was in a freight elevator when the building was attacked. The
elevator dropped to B1 (the basement level)
, fell below the landing. He was trapped in the elevator beneath debris and unconscious. He remembers seeing a beam of light. He called out. The smoke was so thick; Arturo could not see his own hand. So his rescuers had to follow his voice to find him.

'I don't know who saved me. It was so black and smoky. I couldn't see nothin',' Arturo said. 'When they got me out, I told them there was someone else down there, a woman. They went back to get her. Seconds after they pulled her out, a ball of fire came down the shaft. They almost got killed."

http://web.archive.org/web/20021101235538/http://911digitalarchive.org/seiu/details/54

The woman he refers to is the carpenter Marlene Cruz (watch her testimony
here; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TSGZYP--wz0&eurl=
or download it here http://www.911podcasts.com/display.php?vid=201).

From these accounts, the shaft of Car 50 can be ruled out as the possible conduit for the jet-fuel which reportedly caused the damage in the basement, since the blast pressure would have to go right through the elevator used by
Griffith and Cruz.

Certainly they wouldn't have survived the pressure of a fireball descending down the shaft of Car 50. Especially a fireball which supposedly generated - as is shown later - sufficient force, to cave in walls, blow out elevator cars, and to rip out a person's tongue.

Furthermore, the explosion which injured Griffith originated from outside the shaft, and showed no signs of jet-fuel. The only event which could be contributed to jet-fuel was a fireball which came down the shaft considerably later, and well after the basement explosion. That fireball burned Cruz, but apparently had no significant over-pressure, which fits what would be expected from a jet-fuel explosion (see chapter 3, "About Explosions").

Note that with Car 50 falling to Basement 1, all the cars of the three express elevators serving WTC1 were now located at B1, thus blocking those shafts. Thus any debris and most of the jet-fuel falling down those shafts had to pass through these cars before reaching the ground.

Crashing elevators?

Before looking into the damage caused by the basement explosions, one point needs to be addressed: the misleading explanation of crashing elevators.

For example the NIST states:

"Two of the interviewee's associates were injured by flying concrete block on
the B2 and/or B4 levels when the 50 Car elevator crashed to the bottom of WTC 1."
(NIST NCSTAR1-8, p.80 - PDF)

And also here:

"For an elevator’s cables to be cut and result in dropping the car to the bottom of the shaft, the cables would need to have been in the aircraft impact debris path, floors 93 through 98 in WTC 1 or floors 78 through 83 in WTC 2. Inspection of the elevator riser diagram and architectural floor plans for WTC 1
shows that the following elevators met these criteria: cars 81 through 86 ( Bank B ) and 87 through 92 (Bank C), local cars in Zone III; car 50, the freight elevator, and car 6, the Zone III shuttle. ...Cars 6 and 50 could have fallen all the way to the pit in the sub-basement level, and car 50 in WTC 1 was reported to have done so."
(NIST NCSTAR1-7, p.160 - PDF)

Two errors appear here. First, Car 50 did not crash to the bottom of WTC 1, and it would be interesting to know who reported this to the NIST. Secondly, in theory, Car 7 could also have fallen all the way down. In practice, it was parked at B1. Anyway, due to the safety standards, falling elevators would have been stopped by emergency brakes.

See this short article from "How stuff works":
What if you were on an elevator and the cable broke.
http://science.howstuffworks.com/question730.htm

So, keep this in mind whenever the NIST or some eyewitness states that elevators crashed down to the pits in the basement or lobby, that this is a misinterpretation of what really happened. In fact, it's not that falling elevators
were misinterpreted as explosions, but explosions were misinterpreted as falling elevators. Often this misinterpretation is accompanied by the phrase "what I found out later", or something similar, more examples of this can be seen in the further examination. A few examples to show this:

David Kravette, Managing director of Cantor Fitzgerald:
“I saw a couple of elevators in free fall; you could hear them whizzing down and as they crashed, there was this huge explosion, like a fireball exploding out of the bank of elevators,” Kravette said. "People were engulfed in flames."
http://www.engr.psu.edu/ae/WTC/CantorFitzgerald.html

Clearly he could not have seen a couple of elevators in free fall. He also misinterprets the huge explosion as being caused by crashing elevators.

Another one:
"In the stalled lift in which Ian Robb was trapped, routine exasperation had
given way to rising alarm as the sprinkler system slowly began to flood it. Those inside pried the doors open to discover that they were still on the ground floor. A fireman told him that the lift he'd just missed had crashed to the bottom of its shaft."


The fireman was mistaken and misinterpreted the event, since no elevator crashed to the bottom.

"Firefighter Keith Murphy: To my immediate left is a bank. If I had to guess I would say it was maybe 75, 80 feet long. It was a pretty long elevator bank and it was big sky lobby elevators. They were like floor to ceiling, the ones that hold, I don’t know, 60, 70 people. There was tremendous damage in the lobby. There was already things that were like fallen or cracked. A lot of structural wall damage and ceiling damage that I could see. There was also about four or five inches of water on the floor.

At the end of this elevator lobby, there was – it just looked to me like something had exploded. I don’t remember how I heard it or who said it, but someone said I think it was an elevator – when the plane hit, it severed the elevator cable and it came all the way down and crashed. I don’t know a hundred percent if that’s what happened, but it looked to me like that could have been true. It looked like something had fallen down, hit, and exploded out.
I mean the whole area around it was maybe 25, 30 feet of really severe damage."

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/nyregion/20050812_WTC_GRAPHIC/9110238.PDF

Note that someone else provided him with this false explanation and he just rephrased it. That something had fallen to the lobby level and then hit (on what?) and exploded out, makes no sense at all.

To be continued...

MM (for NK-44)
Edited by Miragememories, May 25 2009, 04:46 PM.
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Miragememories
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Continuation of NK-44's paper..

About Explosions

Explosions: Detonations and Deflagrations

In general, an explosion is a sudden, violent increase in the volume and release of energy. Usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases. An explosion causes pressure waves in the local medium in which it occurs. Explosions are categorized as deflagrations, if these waves are subsonic. Explosions are categorized as detonations, if they are superonic. The supersonic waves are the ones which are called shock waves.

Detonation is a process of supersonic combustion in which a shock wave is propagated forward due to energy release in the reaction zone behind it. In a detonation, the shock wave compresses the material and increases it's temperature to the point of ignition. The ignited material burns behind the shock wave and releases energy that supports the shock propagation. This self-sustained detonation wave is different from a deflagration that propagates at a subsonic speed (i.e., slower than the sound speed of the explosive material itself), and without a shock wave or any significant pressure change. Because detonations generate high pressures, they are usually much more destructive than deflagrations.

In engineering, deflagrations are easier to control than detonations. Consequently, they are better suited when the goal is to create a propellant for an object (a bullet in a gun, or a piston in an engine). The force of this expanding gas, is referred to as a "propellant“. Typical examples of deflagrations are; combustion of a gas-air mixture in a gas stove, or the reaction of the fuel-air mixture in an internal combustion engine, and the rapid burning of gunpowder in a firearm. A detonation would result in the destruction of a gun, or the piston of an engine. Therefore explosives like C4, which detonates, are referred to as high-order explosives, whereas explosives like gunpowder are called low-order explosives. Pressures generated by a deflagration increases in confined areas, such as elevator shafts would be in the case of the Twin Towers. Since the elevator shafts were not only confined areas but also the center of the explosion, at least according to the official record, the greatest pressure generated by the jet-fuel explosion would be in the elevator shafts.

About jet-fuel

Kerosene/jet-fuel does not detonate and does not easily explode.

"Jet fuel doesn't explode easily, experts say, and fire would not have spread along airport pipelines.

Alleged plot's damage would have been limited

The premise is right out of a disaster movie: Ignite the massive fuel tanks required to keep an international airport up and running each day, stand back, and watch a chain reaction of explosions throughout the labyrinth of pipelines running underneath the tarmac.

But aviation experts cautioned Saturday that the alleged plot targeting John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York would have faced many hurdles, not least of which is the fact that jet fuel does not easily explode.

"The level of catastrophe that may be created is much more limited than most people would expect," said Rafi Ron, former head of security at Tel Aviv's Ben Gurion International Airport. "The fuel that we are talking about is mostly jet fuel, which, unlike the gasoline most people put into their cars, is not that susceptible to explosion." (LA Times-By Megan Garvey, Times Staff Writer June 3, 2007)


As it's stated above, "kerosene is not like gasoline: it is a lubricant, not corrosive, not volatile, and extremely stable in storage. The specific gravity of kerosene is about 0.8, and its ignition point is more than 104 F. If you throw a match into a pool of kerosene it will put out the match. You can hold a match right up to the edge of a teaspoon half full of kerosene and it will not ignite (try that with gasoline and you will need to grow new eyebrows)."
http://www.milesstair.com/kero_fuel_primer.html

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In order for the right conditions to exist for jet-fuel to explode, there must be the right amount of fuel and the right amount of air. There is a minimum percentage and maximum percentage of fuel/air ratio to achieve such conditions, these are called the lower explosive limit and the upper explosive
limit. For jet-fuel A, the lower explosive limit is 0.7%, the upper explosive limit is 5%, therefore in order for a jet-fuel explosion to have occurred in the WTC elevator shafts, there had to have been a mixture of no less then 0.7% fuel, and no more than 5% fuel to air ratio. Any ratio outside of these limits and a jet-fuel air mixture would not explode. The lower and upper explosive limits of jet-fuel do not determine whether fuel will burn, rather, they just determine the conditions required for an explosive fuel air mixture. The fuel certainly could ignite, and there are many examples of witnesses describing fireballs in elevator shafts immediately after the strikes on the WTC on the upper levels.

See also; http://www.usor.com/pdfs/msds/fuels/Jet_Fuel_MSDS.pdf

Besides powering aircraft, kerosene is commonly used as a heating fuel.

"The cleanest burning, lowest odor fuel for any wicked appliance is Low Odor Mineral Spirits. Jet A fuel is extremely close to kerosene and burns well in kerosene heaters, and therefore is the fuel of choice for those who heat with kerosene heaters in many remote areas of Canada and Alaska."
http://www.milesstair.com/kero_fuel_primer.html

An example of a jet-fuel explosion.

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"An airplane belonging to China Airlines Ltd from Taiwan Province bursts into flames after an explosion in Naha on Japan's southern island of Okinawa August 20, 2007. All 165 people on board had escaped safely, officials said."
http://flagranny2.wordpress.com/2007/08/20/china-airlines-jet-explodes-upon-landing-in-okinawa/

Watch this video-clip of the explosion (at 0:50).
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KmKd-buNMVc
Looking closely at the people to the right of the front emergency exit and the man beside the airport vehicle near the burning engine, it can be seen that the explosion produced no shockwave. People were not pushed, or blasted away, and no parts of the plane structure were either. (Note that the planes ceiling partly collapsed, but not as direct result of the explosion but the subsequent fires.)

The impact-explosion on 9/11

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Of course there is the example of 9/11 itself. The explosion at the South Tower, which consumed an estimated 1,000-3,000 gal of jet-fuel, is often referred to as 'tremendous'. But tremendous better describes the psychological impact it had on the viewer rather than properly describing its effect on the building's structure. From the FEMA:

"These videos show that three fireballs emanated from WTC 2 on the south, east, and west faces. The fireballs grew slowly, reaching their full size after about 2 seconds. The diameters of the fireballs were greater than 200 feet, exceeding the width of the building. Such fireballs were formed when the expelled jet fuel dispersed and flames traveled through the resulting fuel/air
mixture.(...)

Although dramatic, these fireballs did not explode or generate a shock wave. If an explosion or detonation had occurred, the expansion of the burning gasses would have taken place in icroseconds, not the 2 seconds observed.

Therefore, although there were some overpressures, it is unlikely that the fireballs, being external to the buildings, would have resulted in significant structural damage. It is not known whether the windows that were broken shortly after impact were broken by these external overpressures, overpressures internal to the building, the heat of the fire, or flying debris.
" (FEMA WTC report, chapter 2, 2-21).

So, when FEMA states it's uncertainty that the fireballs could have generated enough pressure to blow out the windows in the impact zone, how could defenders of the official version be so certain that these fireballs blew out the windows on the 22nd floor, or the even more massive windows in the lobby?

9/11-Injuries inconsistent with explosives?

The notion of the possibility of explosives in the basement is often rejected by supporters of the jet-fuel theory by the argument, that people suffered burns which were inconsistent with the effect of explosives.

Mark Roberts, one of the most prominent "debunkers“ of 9/11-skepticism, wrote a long paper (http://911stories.googlepages.com/home) with the intention of refuting the notion that explosive devices were involved.

"I've said this before and I'll keep saying it until [WTC janitor William] Rodriguez understands it: if a person was close enough to a demolition charge or large high explosive to be burned by it, he or she would also be blown apart by it."

His statement isn't true but a large oversimplification. Effects like burning could accompany with explosive devices.

"Explosive devices also create a short-lived pulse of thermal energy. The intense heat may cause burns of the skin or lead to combustion of surrounding materials. If an explosive device contains flammable fuel, the thermal injuries can be more severe and occur at greater distances from the source." (EYE INJURIES ASSOCIATED WITH TERRORIST BOMBINGS, ALLEN B. THACH, MD) http://www.bordeninstitute.army.mil/published_volumes/ophthalmic/OPHch24.pdf

"Miscellaneous Blast Effects (Quaternary Blast Injuries): This category of blast trauma includes burns from fire or radiation, crush injury associated with structural collapse, poisoning from carbon monoxide or other toxic products of the explosion, and inhalation of dust or chemicals from the explosion."
http://www.storysmith.net/Articles/B...ies%200406.pdf

From "Vulnerability of Buildings to Blast Damage and Blast-Induced Fire Damage"
by Ronald J. Massa:

"When the detonation occurs inside a building and in a confined and fuel-rich space, such as in a parking garage, the hot gases from the detonation cannot expand freely to mix with an ever-increasing volume of cooler air. The shock effects and mechanical damage from the explosion will overturn vehicles, fracture gas tanks, break pipes, and breach walls, exposing a variety of
materials to the hot gas cloud. Many of these will ignite, generally on the periphery of the affected space, where the expanding gas causes the least local oxygen deprivation. Thus, suddenly the detonation will spawn many separate fires. From that point on, the building will respond as it would had each of the fires been set with a match. However, if the building were severely damaged by the blast, life safety systems may be incapacitated, gas lines severed, and electrical systems disturbed, all of which will increase the fire vulnerability of the building."
(USFA-TR-076/February 1993 , p.106/107)


That burnings can accompany explosive devices is evident from the WTC '93 bombing itself:

"Quickly returning to the B ramp, I ordered that a 2 1/2-inch hoseline be hand-
stretched. The firefighters, meanwhile, had rescued two civilians from the collapsed rubble. Both were severly burned, had suffered lacerations, and were in shock." (USFA-TR-076/February 93, p.25)


Posted Image
(http://www.remm.nlm.gov/blasteffects.htm)

The thesis of explosive devices is also often rejected by the notion that no one suffered perforated tympanic membrane (eardrums). The rupture of an eardrum can be caused by a pressure force of 5psi. Isn't the absence of perforated eardrums proof of the absence of explosive devices?

No, and for several reasons. Firstly, the injury to the ear is dependent on the orientation of the ear to the blast, and of course, dependent on the location in relation to the center of the explosion. Secondly, people have suffered higher pressure forces, for example lung injuries, without having their eardrums ruptured:
"The absence of a perforated tympanic membrane does not exclude pulmonary blast injury". (PERFORATED EAR DRUM FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO BLAST ADVICE AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS, Academic Department of Military Emergency Medicine at the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine and the University of Birmingham)
http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAweb&HPAwebStandard/HPAweb_C/1217230500341

Another study also states that; "some patients with lung injuries did not have ruptured membranes." (Blast Injuries, Ralph G. DePalma et al.)
http://www.simquest.com/HRC-blastNEJM.pdf

Lung injuries require at least a pressure force of 15psi, according to some sources, 40psi is "needed for primary pulmonary injury." (The Blast Injured Patient Jeff R. Thurlby, MD)

Thirdly, as can be seen later in the chapter on the lobby-damage, people were described having their leg chopped off and their tongue lying on the floor. It is not unreasonable to assume that they may also suffered an injured ear membrane.

And finally, the comparison with the blast effects of the '93 WTC bombing does not disprove the existance of explosive devices - quite the opposite.

WTC 93 bombing Vs. 9/11-Basement explosion

Before we going into the injuries, here's a report about the building-damage:

"A van containing explosives was parked on the B-2 level of the underground parking garage in a position adjacent to one of the towers and under the Vista Hotel. At 12:18 p.m., the explosives were detonated causing varying degrees of physical damage on all six basement levels. In the immediate area of the explosion, the floor slabs for two basement levels collapsed onto vital electrical, communications, and domestic water systems equipment for the complex. Further, masonry fire walls and fire doors separating the buildings within the complex were voided by the force of the explosion. The explosion also penetrated vertically into a first-floor public assembly area of the Vista Hotel and shattered several glass partitions that separated the hotel from the lobby area of one of the Center's towers. This penetration of the structures enabled dense, black, super-heated smoke from the explosive materials and the ensuing fire to quickly fill the lobby area and move into numerous elevator shafts." (NFPA Fire investigation report, WTC 93 bombing)

The effects of the bomb are bolded. The similarity to the damage in the basement and the lobby on 9/11 is undeniable.

Now to the injuries. Besides ruptured eardrums, "most blasts cause at least some ocular injuries.(...)Although the eye constitutes only a small portion of the frontal body surface area, it is very susceptible to fragmentation missiles. Fragments that may cause minimal damage to other parts of the body can cause severe injuries to the globe."
(EYE INJURIES ASSOCIATED WITH TERRORIST BOMBINGS, ALLEN B. THACH, MD)

In the report it can be learned that no cases of eye injuries occured in the '93 bombing: "A notable exception is the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, in which explosives were detonated underground and most injuries were therefore due to smoke inhalation, not fragmentation missiles."

The study with the title "Mass-Casualty, Terrorist Bombings:Epidemiological
Outcomes, Resource Utilization, and Time Course of Emergency Needs (Part I)"

provides us with the following table (p.226):
Posted Image
http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/18-3pdfs/220Arnold.pdf

As can be seen, zero percent of the injured in the '93 bombing suffered ruptured eardrums (TM) or eye injuries. For comparison; of those injured in the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, 3 percent sustained TM rupture and a 12 percent suffered eye injuries.

In the WTC '93 bombing, six people died, but not as a direct consequence of the blast, but due to the collapse of the building structure.
("Most of those who died are believed to have been crushed by the station ceiling“, BBC News)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/26/newsid_2516000/2516469.stm

If the presence of perforated eardrums and eye injuries is a required condition for the evidence of explosive devices, then we should erase the 'bomb' in the expression 'WTC '93 bombing'. Unlike the WTC '93 bombing, people were killed on 9/11 as a direct result of blast effects. When it is reported that someone had his leg chopped off, then this clearly indicates a strong blast effect.

Blast effects like amputations are commonly refered to as tertiary blast injuries.
But these: "are difficult to categorize, since they may be attributable to more than one mechanism. For example, fractures, amputations, intracranial injuries, and solid organ injuries all may be primary, secondary, or tertiary in origin."[color] (Mass-Casualty, Terrorist bombings:Epidemiological Outcomes, Resource Utilization, and Time Course of Emergency Needs (Part I))[/color]
http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/18-3pdfs/220Arnold.pdf
Furthermore, "Amputations were relatively uncommon in injured survivors seeking emergency care from any type of bombing, presumably because they correlate with exposure to higher blast energy and immediate death." (Source see above)

In the WTC '93 attack, people were also burned and injured by a concussive force - similiar to 9/11. Yet no one would argue that a bomb didn't go off. The fact that people suffered burnings does not disprove explosives. The facts that a leg was blown off and a tongue violently removed provide strong indications against jet-fuel as the cause.

Another objection against explosives

Another objection raised against the bomb-theory is the fact that people felt, and were pushed, by a strong, hot wind. These reports attempt to debunk an explosive device as cause, because the blast wave generated by it would blow people apart instead of pushing them through the air. But this objection is baseless, since it is confusing the different effects of explosion, namely blast waves with blast winds - the latter being a tertiary blast effect.

Here's what the experts have to say:

"In general, explosions cause injury via rapidly expanding spherical waves of atmospheric overpressure (blast wave), air displacement (blast wind), and heat." (pg 228)
"Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the blast wind, either when it accelerates victims against fixed objects or it differentially accelerates exposed body parts."

(pg 225) (Mass-Casualty, Terrorist Bombings)
http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/18-3pdfs/220Arnold.pdf

"The explosion of a conventional bomb generates a blast wave that spreads out from a point source. The blast wave consists of two parts — a shock wave of high pressure, followed closely by a blast wind, or air in motion." (pg 43)

"Tertiary blast injuries also result from people being thrown into fixed objects by the wind of explosions." (pg 46) (Blast injuries)

Tertiary blast injuries result from movement of the human body by the blast wind.(...) When the entire body is set in motion, it may be carried a considerable distance from the blast.
(pg 424) (EYE INJURIES ASSOCIATED WITH TERRORIST BOMBINGS)

Fireballs on 9/11
In the floors underneath the impact zone, where the shafts of multiple elevator banks served as path for jet fuel, people witnessed several fireballs.

"(Manu) Dhingra was engulfed in a fireball from the crash of one of the hijacked planes Tuesday and suffered burns over most of his body.

Like others who were severely burned by a fire sparked by the jet fuel as the crashed planes turned the buildings into infernos, he was just beginning his work day Tuesday on the 83rd floor of the north tower, the one that was struck first.

"All of a sudden, as I was walking down the hallway and I heard a door explode and this large ball of fire just engulfed me," he said from his hospital bed at the Cornell Burn Center where all those burned in the attack are being treated. "I just froze. I didn't do anything. I just stood here."

http://www.greatdreams.com/trade_day9.htm

Another occupant reports his experience on CNN:

"Harry Waizer, severely burned in WTC attack, interviewed by TV host Larry King: I was on my way to work. I worked at Cantor Fitzgerald as well. I was in the elevator. I don't know exactly what floor. Somewhere between the 78th and I imagine the point of impact for the airplane. And the elevator just suddenly rocked. There was an explosion. There was flame. I was trying to beat out the flame. The elevator was plummeting and then righted itself. And then a second fireball, the second one is one that hit me in the face, but the elevator did settle down at the 78th floor. The doors opened.

...Larry King: Was your face burning?

Waizer: It wasn't burning. I got hit by a fireball that just -- if you can imagine a barbecue grill with too much gas, that just suddenly explodes, that's what I had. It just hit me in the face, then it was gone."

http://edition.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0209/08/lklw.00.html

Those are two examples of people who were directly hit by a fireball, but neither of them experienced any violent blast effect. In addition, there are many reports of fireballs in the higher floors, http://911stories.googlepages.com/insidethenorthtower:witnessaccounts91-60) none of them indicating a violent blast effect. That is exactly what should be expected. It's important to remember this and compare it to the reports dealing with the damage in the basement and in the lobby.

To be continued...

MM (for NK-44)
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DoYouEverWonder

Good stuff Miragememories.

Thanks for putting all this together.
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Miragememories
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Continuation of NK-44's paper..

THE BASEMENT

This examination starts with Basement 4, since there were only reports of smoke in regard to Basement 5 and 6.

The damage in the basement

This examination starts with Basement 4, since there were only reports of smoke in regard to Basement 5 and 6.

To get an idea of the eyewitness locations in the following reports, below is the floor plan of Basement 4:

Posted Image

Red-marked in the center of the blue outlined WTC 1 is the shaft of Car 50.
Green marked beneath is the shaft of Cars 6 and 7. Adjacent to the south and outlined in orange is the area of the Turner Construction offices. Outlined in yellow is the refrigeration plant to the south of the North Tower. To the east, and outlined in purple, is the approximate location of Akbar's Cafe. The parking area is outlined in brown (note that the parking lot locations vary for each floor).

According to accounts from the Akbar's Cafe;

"James Cutler, a 31-year-old insurance broker, was in the Akbar restaurant on the ground floor of the World Trade Center when he heard “boom, boom, boom,” he recalls. In seconds, the kitchen doors blew open, smoke and ash poured into the restaurant and the ceiling collapsed. Mr. Cutler didn’t know what had happened yet, but he found himself standing among bodies strewn across the floor. “It was mayhem,” he says."
http://www.asne.org/index.cfm?ID=3426

Note that the location of Akbar's Cafe is misplaced. It was down on the B-4 level, near the escalators to the PATH (Port Authority Trans-Hudson) station in Basement 5.

Posted Image

Here's what the manager had to say:

"Bhojwani was outside at a space where the restaurant sold coffee and snacks to commuters who had time only to pick up something to go. It was a very busy time.

Right then the newly installed alarm system went off. It was a sound nobody could ignore, like a bunch of police sirens sounding at once.

Bhojwani thought the alarm had probably been set off by smoke detectors from a malfunctioning stove. He ran inside to reset the alarm panel and stopped in his tracks. The walk-in refrigerated room where perishable foods were stored had partly collapsed. "The whole thing was down," he said. "And the fire alarm was so loud and the fire brigade and police guys were like, 'You got to evacuate.' So we left everything as it was and ran."

http://in.rediff.com/us/2001/sep/15ny5.htm

Note that the occurrence of smoke rules out the possibility that the reported damage was a result of vibration from the plane impact. A cave-in was reported at the PATH plaza, trapping people.
(from Port Authority Transcripts ):
http://www.thememoryhole.org/911/pa-transcripts/

PAPD OFFICER 33: There's also been a cave-in at the platform of the PATH plaza ...there's a live electrical, and water running. Turn off the power in that area.
PAPD OFFICER DESK: Roger.
PAPD OFFICER TRUCK ONE: Truck one, desk.
PAPD OFFICER: Truck one, go.
PAPD OFFICER DESK: Three-three is reporting that there is a cave-in, B-4 level,
at the World Trade, copy? possibility of people trapped."

(PATH - CHANNEL 021, Transcript 10, pg 9)

PAPD OFFICER 33: Myself and (Inaudible) to the Trade Center responding with scott packs to the B-4 level. There's a report of a cave-in, and people trapped.
PAPD OFFICER DESK: Roger, three-three and eight-two Houston, World Trade responding B-4 level on a report of a cave-in.

(PATH - CHANNEL 021, Transcript 10, pg 9)

Another quote referring to Basement 4, but without giving further specific
location:

PAPD OFFICER MAGGETT: Port Authority Police, Officer Maggett.
ED CALDERONE - OCC: Maggett, this is Ed at the OCC. I got word that there's an explosion down on B-4. We got people hurt down there, B-4.

(WTCCH. 09 - POLICE DESK - 3541 CENTER, Transcript 37, pg 6)


And there were reports from the area of Turner's office, which is to the south of the elevators:

PAPD OFFICER BRADY: Port Authority Police, Officer Brady.
MALE CALLER - B-4 LEVEL: Officer, help. We're down in the B-4 level. This is Turner's field office. There's been a big explosion. We've got water lines open. There seems to be steam and smoke in the area.
PAPD OFFICER BRADY: Okay. Where...where exactly on B-4?
MALE CALLER - B-4 LEVEL: Turner Construction, right outside the 50-Car. We're across the hall from the 50-Car.
PAPD OFFICER BRADY: Is there any smoke condition there?
MALE CALLER - B-4 LEVEL: It's...yeah, we got smoke. I don't how whether it's from fire, or just dust. We got broken water lines, water all over."

(WTC - CH. 08 - POLICE DESK - 3541 LEFT, Transcript 36, pg 4)

That communication referred to a big explosion. Open water lines and smoke are mentioned, but there was no mention of fires, and no one smelled kerosene which has a strong odor and would be indicative of jet-fuel. Some say that the mentioning of Car 50 is evidence that the explosion emerged from there. But Car 50, being the main freight elevator, is mentioned here only to provide a reference point from where the caller is standing, "across the hall from the 50-car". From this it cannot be concluded where the explosion emerged. It can only be concluded that it happened in the vicinity of the Turner Construction area, which is confirmed by other accounts.

"Bianca Figueroa was four stories below ground in One World Trade Center when she remembers hearing "some kind of crashing, almost like the elevator had fallen in the shaft."

The blast blew out the walls, briefly blocking her exit. Then a maintenance worker opened a passageway through the refrigeration room.

"I was the first to get out," said Figueroa, a single mom with a 15-month-old.
Figueroa works at Turner Construction Co."

http://www.nydailynews.com/archives/news/2001/09/1/2001-09-12_amid_bloodshed__a_lucky_few.html

Edward McCabe, building engineer, was in the refrigeration plant:

"I was in the refrigeration plant in tower 1 sub basement 4. I was passing through when I felt a slight shifting of the building. I froze right where I stood and listened....nothing. About 30 seconds past and to my left about 30 feet from me was a stairway leading up to a door. This door explodes off its hinges and white smoke came into the plant. (...)

When we got to the PATH platform I layed the woman down, she thanked me, and I returned to the blown door to see if i could find anyone else. Sure enough there were more, the smoke was being sucked up the shaft now and I can see there were no longer any walls just rubble. A woman was under her desk refusing to come out. after a little coaxing she came and at this point a few of my colleagues, were sifting through the rubble, trying to find anybody. we did about 3 trips. Everyone was out."

http://old.911digitalarchive.org/stories/details/936

The refrigeration plant was located outside the tower's foundation and adjacent to its south-side. For the door to explode off its hinges, the blast had to destroy at least three walls before reaching the wall of the Turner office where the woman worked - it is highly unlikely that her desk was located in the hall.

Posted Image

Elevators 6 and 7 are marked in blue. The walls in between are marked in red, and the door McCabe is talking of is marked in green. McCabe makes no mention of fire or the odor of kerosene. Neither is this mentioned in this report (which misplaces his location as being Basement 5):

"At about 8:45 a.m., he was in the refrigeration plant of the B5 level when he suddenly felt the building shake. An instant later, a door to his left was blown off its hinges. Boris Bronsteyn, his colleague, and a 30-year veteran, was taking readings nearby. The freight elevator shaft exploded into the area where they were. (Later Ed would learn that the jet-fuel had filled the elevator shaft causing the explosion.) Ed walked up to the door and tried to open it but it was jammed, but he was able to force it open. Entering the smoke filled office of Turner Construction, he saw that all of the office partitions within 50 feet were blown down by the force of the explosion. He helped several people who were bleeding and burned."

It's important to note, that the quote referring to the freight elevator shaft exploding into the area, was only an assumption, and was not something witnessed by either Bronsteyn or McCabe.

From the first quoted article:

"I later on found out the reason there was an explosion was the jet-fuel filled the elevator shaft and seconds later a spark triggered an explosion."

This is another example of someone who "found out later", as if he researched it. He never witnessed jet-fuel filling in an elevator shaft. He didn't directly witness the actual explosion. Nor did he mention noticing any odor of jet-fuel which would have been exhibited by the strong smell of kerosene. Amazingly, he maintained no recollection of any such odor, in spite of a later belief that the elevator shaft had been filling with jet-fuel. Note that he believes that jet-fuel was accumulating prior to the explosion. This can be rejected for two reasons:

First, nobody noticed jet-fuel before the the explosion in Basement 4, nor did any of the survivors in the basement floors or the lobby. Also, based on the accounts of Griffith and Cruz in elevator Car 50, we can also rule out jet-fuel reaching the bottom through that path. The explosion in the basement must have occurred before any fireball could have traveled through shaft 50.

Secondly, it would have taken too much time for the unignited fuel to reach the basement and then explode - Chapter 6 ("The Timing"), examines this is in more detail.

It's reasonable to assume that McCabe himself did not determine the cause of the explosion, but was told by someone else, or he just derived this conclusion later from all the public accounts and reports.

Phillip Morelli, construction worker, was also in Basement 4:

"I go downstairs, the foreman tells me to go to remove the containers, as I’m walking by the main freight car of the building, in the corridor, that’s when I got blown. I mean, the impact of the explosion, or whatever happened, it threw me to the floor, and that’s when everything started happening...

It knocked me right to the floor. You didn’t know what it was. Of course you’re assuming something just fell over in the loading dock, something very heavy, something very big, you don’t know what happened, and all of a sudden you just felt the floor moving and you get up and the walls...And then you know, I mean now I’m hearing that the main freight car, the elevators fell down, so I was right near the main freight car so I assume what that was."


[Note that "now I'm hearing..." is a misinterpretation of the events Morelli experienced, made afterwards by others who told him what he experienced. The main freight elevator did not crash down, it was caught by its brakes and therefore could not have caused floor and walls to move.]

"Then, I mean you heard that coming towards you. I was racing, I was going towards the bathroom. All of a sudden, I opened the door, I didn’t know it was the bathroom, and all of a sudden the big impact happened again, and all of the ceiling tiles was falling down, the light fixtures were falling, swinging out of the ceiling, and I come running out the door, and everything, the walls were down, and I started running towards the parking lots.

I just thought something... because I know that the loading dock is on B1, that’s three floors above me, I just assumed that a car or something exploded on B1 or something got delivered and something big and heavy fell over. You just knew it was something big...(...)

As I ran to the parking lots, you know, I mean, everybody screaming... There was a lot of smoke down there.... You gotta go clear across the whole -- from One to Two World Trade Center. That's the way you gotta run.

And then all of a sudden it happened all over again. Building Two got hit. I don't know that. I just know something else hit us to the floor. Right in the basement you felt it. The walls were caving in. Everything that was going on. I know of people that got killed in the basement. I know of people that got broken legs in the basement. People got reconstructive surgery because the walls hit them in the face."

Watch Morellis testimony here;
http://www.studyof911.com/video/files/morelli_01.rm

Note that Morelli experienced two explosions in the basement levels. These explosions took walls down and killed or heavily injured people. Morelli mentioned smoke, but he never mentioned a fireball or the odor of jet-fuel,
though he said he was "right near the main freight car".

Here's another testimony from an eyewitness, Jose Sanchez, maintenance worker, located in Basement 4:

"Sanchez recalls, (...) being in a small sub-level 4 workshop with another man who he only knew by the name of Chino when, out of nowhere, the blast sounded as the two men were cutting a piece of metal.

“It sounded like a bomb and the lights went on and off,” said Sanchez in the tape recording. “We started to walk to the exit and a huge ball of fire went through the freight elevator. The hot air from the ball of fire dropped Chino to the floor and my hair got burned,” said Sanchez in the tape recording. “The room then got full of smoke and I remember saying out loud ‘I believe it was a bomb that blew up inside the building."



Note that Sanchez describes a first event which sounded like a bomb and the lights went out. Then after proceeding in the direction of the freight elevator, he experienced a fireball passing through the freight elevator. This is consistent with the testimony of Arturo Griffith, who reported a fireball occurring after he first experienced an explosion below. Also, this fireball knocked Sanchez to the floor and burned his hair. It seems that it did not produce a very powerful blast pressure, which matches the fireball experienced by Griffith and Cruz.

Therefore it is most likely the same event.

But there seems to be a time-discrepancy. From the quote above it appears that Sanchez experienced the fireball only seconds after the first explosion event ("We started to walk to the exit and a huge ball of fire went through the freight elevator"). But, the fireball Griffith reported did not occur within the first seconds. Though we don't know exactly when Griffith witnessed the fireball, it seems there's a discrepancy of 30 seconds plus between the two accounts.

By looking into the account of Hursley Lever ("Chino"), there is reason to believe that there was no discrepancy.

"When Lever heard a ''poof'' from that crash, he thought that a transformer had blown again.

''I'm still doing what I'm doing,'' Lever recalled of his reaction. ''Then I walk toward the door and heard a big explosion. And when I look, I see a ball of fire coming toward the door.''

After being knocked across the room, with the lights out and black smoke everywhere, Lever heard a co-worker calling him by his nickname from across the shop. ''`Chino, Chino, are you all right?''' Lever recalled."

http://www.boston.com/news/packages/underattack/globe_stories/0916/In_a_nightmare_survivor_finds_rescue_and_hopeP.shtml


"I was in the B-4 level. ... I heard a bomb. So, I says, 'Probably a transformer again blew up.'So I step back, finish what I had to finish, and I started towards the door again. And there came a big blast with a big ball of fire. And that's when I got hit. It hit me right back down on the ground and I realized my ankle
was shattered."

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xcGXlP6Zlgk

"Doing what I'm doing" and "finish what I had to finish" could very well refer to an activity lasting 30+ seconds. With that, any time-discrepancy is accounted for.

Sanchez and Lever exemplify how people (and elevator shafts) near the explosion zone survived the fire and overpressure, while further away from that official - explosion center, garages, offices, machine shops and other elevator shafts were damaged or destroyed.

And then there is the account of Bobby Hall. Neither of the quoted articles mention where exactly he was, but one just states that he was 50 feet underground.

"Bobby Hall, of Staten Island, was near a mechanical room floor 50 feet underground when the impact of a falling elevator threw him against a steel door. He struggled to his feet, and assisted two other injured men. Outside, he borrowed a cell phone from a man on the plaza to call his wife. Moments later, the man was killed by falling debris, Hall said."
http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/specials/911/showcase/ny-nystaf092916637sep09,0,1597086.story?page=2&?track=sto-relcon

“We were going to our shop to make a call and find out what the first explosion was and the place just came apart on us," Bobby said. "What we found out later was the hot wind was the number 50 freight car falling from the 88th floor and it just came into the area where we were and just blew us back out into the
parking lot."

http://www.911ea.org/News_Stories_From_September_2002.htm#NY

First, note that what "they found out later" is a misinterpretation. Car 50 wasn't falling from the 88th floor, and Hall being thrown against a wall could not have resulted from an elevator falling. Certainly they could not have been blown into the parking lot by an elevator's fall, since the parking lots were all outside the towers foundation. It must be assumed, that he and his colleagues did not research what happened. So, actually they didn't find out later, but were told what was believed to have happened.

Also note, that he doesn't mention fire or a fireball, but a hot wind, blowing him back.

This investigation moves to Basement 2, since there are no specific reports regarding Basement 3.

Basement 2

Here's the account of Mike Pecoraro:

"Deep below the tower, Mike Pecoraro was suddenly interrupted in his grinding task by a shake on his shoulder from his co-worker. "Did you see that?" he was asked. Mike told him that he had seen nothing. "You didn’t see the lights flicker?", his co-worker asked again. "No," Mike responded, but he knew immediately that if the lights had flickered, it could spell trouble. A power surge or interruption could play havoc with the building’s equipment. If all the pumps trip out or pulse meters trip, it could make for a very long day bringing the entire center’s equipment back on-line.

Mike told his co-worker to call upstairs to their Assistant Chief Engineer and find out if everything was all right. His co-worker made the call and reported back to Mike that he was told that the Assistant Chief did not know what happened but that the whole building seemed to shake and there was a loud explosion. They had been told to stay where they were and "sit tight" until the Assistant Chief got back to them. By this time, however, the room they were working in began to fill with a white smoke. "We smelled kerosene", Mike recalled, "I was thinking
maybe a car fire was upstairs", referring to the parking garage located below grade in the tower but above the deep space where they were working.

The two decided to ascend the stairs to the C level, to a small machine shop where Vito Deleo and David Williams were supposed to be working. When thetwo arrived at the C level, they found the machine shop gone.

"There was nothing there but rubble, "Mike said. "We’re talking about a 50 ton hydraulic press – gone!"The two began yelling for their co-workers, but there was no answer. They saw a perfect line of smoke streaming through the air. "You could stand here,” he said, “and two inches over you couldn’t breathe. We couldn’t see through the smoke so we started screaming." But there was still no answer.

The two made their way to the parking garage, but found that it, too, was gone. "There were no walls, there was rubble on the floor, and you can’t see anything," he said.

They decided to ascend two more levels to the building’s lobby. As they ascended to the B Level, one floor above, they were astonished to see a steel and concrete fire door that weighed about 300 pounds, wrinkled
up "like a piece of aluminum foil" and lying on the floor.
"They got us again", Mike told his co-worker, referring to the terrorist attack at the center in 1993. Having been through that bombing, Mike recalled seeing similar
things happen to the building’s structure. He was convinced a bomb had gone off in the building.


Mike walked through the open doorway and found two people lying on the floor. One was a female Carpenter and the other an Elevator Operator. They were both badly burned and injured. Realizing he had to get help, Mike ascended to the Lobby Level."

http://www.chiefengineer.org/article.cfm?seqnum1=1029

Pecoraro and his co-worker were in Basement 6 when the lights flickered, and after the room filled with white smoke, they decided to leave and head upstairs.

From their statement, that "they decided to ascend two more levels to the building’s lobby", it can be concluded that Level C refers to Basement 2. This is also confirmed when they said they ascended one floor above, where they found an elevator operator and a female carpenter. The elevator operator is Arthuro Griffith, and the female carpenter is Marlene Cruz.

It's notable, that when Pecoraro speaks of "walls gone" in the parking area, and the "machine shop gone", he makes no mention of fire. Also note, that a 50-ton-press doesn't mean that the press weight 50 tons, but that it had a compressive force of 50-tons.

For example, here's a picture of a 30-ton press:

Posted Image

Basement 1

According to an ABC reporter, after the basement explosion, the subway station and cars started filling with smoke and subsequently the subway was stopped.
(Download the video (2.7 mB) of his report here;
http://www.file-upload.net/download-1347206/Subway-2.avi.html
or here;
http://uploading.com/files/2VXTFWWX/Subway%202.avi.html

The subway is outside the WTC Twin Towers foundation ("bathtub"), on the eastern side, over 200 feet away from the elevator shafts:

Posted Image

William Rodriguez, janitor in the Twin Towers, in an interview with Lenny Charles, INN:
http://www.william911.com/

"Rodriguez: I worked in the building for 20 years. I was the person in charge of all the stairwells in the building. I had the only master key that opened all the doors in the building, and I went floor by floor opening the doors.

On 9/11, on 8:46, I was at the basement of the North Tower, the first tower to be impacted, the second one to fall. While I was there, a second or two before the plane hit, there was a huge explosion on the sublevel B2 to
sublevel B3.


Charles: So there was an explosion from below you?

Rodriguez: Correct. And that was, you know, a second or two before the impact of the plane.

Charles: But it was clear and it was distinct that the explosion was before the plane hit the top of the building?

Rodriguez: Oh, yes, definitely, definitely. As a matter of fact, it was so hard that I thought it was an electrical generator that just blew up on the sublevels, because the support of the building, the electrical pumps and generators, was located by the mechanical room on that floor.

And when I went to verbalize it, we heard the impact of the plane, very far away, coming from the top. So there was a big difference of something coming from the top and something coming from the basement. I mean I worked there for 20 years, I could tell the difference of one thing coming from each side.

And at that moment a person comes running into the office saying, "Explosion, explosion!", with his hands extended, all his skin was off from under his armpits like he was a piece of cloth, and was hanging off both hands. It was his actual skin."

"Arriving at 8:30 on the morning of 9-11 he went to the maintenance office located on the first sublevel, one of six sub-basements beneath ground level. There were a total of fourteen people in the office at this time. As he was talking with others, there was a very loud massive explosion which seemed to emanate from between sub-basement B2 and B3. There were twenty-two people on B2 sub-basement who also felt and heard that first explosion.

At first he thought it was a generator that had exploded. But the cement walls in the office cracked from the explosion. "When I heard the sound of the explosion, the floor beneath my feet vibrated, the walls started cracking and everything started shaking." said Rodriguez, who was crowded together with fourteen other people in the office including Anthony Saltamachia, supervisor for the American Maintenance Company."

http://web.archive.org/web/20051214165048/http://www.theconservativevoice.com/articles/article.html?id=7762

From the above account it is established that Rodriguez was in Basement 1, and that the explosions came from below him, which he assumed was either from Basement 2 or 3.

Rodriguez' testimony is corroborated by Felipe David, who also states that the explosion came from below:

"That day I was in the basement in sub-level 1 sometime after 8:30am. Everything happened so fast, everything moved so fast. The building started shaking after I heard the explosion below, dust was flying everywhere and all of a sudden it got real hot.

"I threw myself onto the floor, covered my face because I felt like I was burned. I sat there for a couple of seconds on the floor and felt like I was going to die, saying to myself 'God, please give me strength.'"

Although severely burned on his face, arms and hands with skin hanging from his body like pieces of cloth, David picked himself up, running for help to the office were Rodriguez and others were gathered.

"When I went in, I told them it was an explosion," said David, who was then helped out of the WTC by Rodriguez and eventually taken by ambulance to New York Hospital. "When people looked at me with my skin hanging, they started crying but I heard others say 'OK, good, good, you made it alive."

http://web.archive.org/web/20060422081157/http://www.arcticbeacon.com/13-Jul-2005.html

With this in mind, also observe the accounts of Kenneth Johannemann
(watch here);
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=egIrVyM3FGY
-and Anthony Saltalamacchia (watch here);
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rzpaZE5XSfg

Another eyewitness, Salvatore Giambanco, was on the opposite side of Basement 1, by another elevator and in a completely different location than Rodriguez and David:

"Reflecting back on his 9/11 near death experience, he added: "I remember riding in the ambulance that morning and looking back, thinking it had to be a bomb."

"Later they told me it was an airplane that hit the towers, but how could it just be an airplane? I know all the newspapers were saying that, but it was just too incredible to believe if you heard and experienced what I did. It had to be a bomb."

http://web.archive.org/web/20060209043425/http://arcticbeacon.com/13-Jul-2005.html

Yet another person who was later provided with an explanation about what was believed to have occurred. It's apparent that many witnesses of the basement explosions, later, "found out" explanations for what they experienced.

Explanations that fit perfectly with the official account. Giambanco also stated this:

"We heard the explosion and the smoke all of a sudden came from all over.
There was an incredible force of wind that also swept everything away. I remember hearing a scream of a woman, but I couldn't see her. I had just gotten off the elevator and I was standing by it with another man but didn't know his name."


This was corroborated by witness Bobby Hall, who also mentioned the "incredible force of the wind". Using different words, he was told that this wind was the effect of an elevator falling 90 levels. Both Hall and Giambanco made no mention of any fire or fireball. So what caused this wind? Tertiary blast effects, as learned in the chapter about explosions? It's certain that vibration and building shaking from the plane impact can be ruled out as the cause.

Another witness had this to say:

"The last stretch of floors went by rather quickly; 3rd... 2rd... 1st... Basement.
We ended up in some weird storage closet with two WTC workers. "You went too far! The exits are on the 1st Floor," one of them yelled from behind the disheveled pipes and disarray. I noticed that the walls down here were heavily damaged. It was dark, damp, and it looked like the building really took quite a structural blow. It was pretty tough to backtrack against the steady flow of people coming down the stairs, but we managed to get back out to the ground level."


Unfortunately, we don't know the name of this man, as this was only posted in an Internet forum and therefore should be taken with a grant of salt. However, his Unfortunately, we don't know the name of this man, as this was only posted in an Internet forum and therefore should be taken with a grain of salt. However, his whole report seems to be accurate and not in contradiction to the reports of other people.
http://web.archive.org/web/20030210031615/http://www.mjbarkl.com/locked.htm

Conclusion

It was reported that Basement 4 and 2 sustained cave-ins and blown walls ("walls hitting the face", "cave-in with people trapped", "walls of parking garage gone", "machine-shop gone"). Basement 1 also had blast damage ("steel and concrete fire door (...) wrinkled up", "cement walls have cracked", "walls heavily damaged", "(...)structural blow").

According to the official version of events, a jet-fuel fireball created this massive basement damage, supposedly traveling through elevator cars occupying the same shaft while leaving them practically unscathed.

The damage pattern in the basement levels does not fit with the official account.
If shaft 50 would have been the origin, Griffith and Cruz would not have survived. Instead, their accounts show that the first explosion(s), occurring within seconds after the impact, did not emerge from shaft 50. The damage
pattern does not fit with shaft 6/7 as origin either.

In their position at B1, the explosion force would not have left the cars "intact" (but burned, as NIST states), and they would have been destroyed at the same time as the walls over several levels. To penetrate and destroy walls farther away, the explosion had to rip through the walls of shaft 6/7, which could not have left those parked cars "intact".

It's important to remember, that since the doors of cars 6 and 7 were permanently closed due to maintenance work, any explosive jet-fuel/air-mixture would have been contained by the shaft. If this mixture ignited, the explosion's force would have peaked in the shaft. Not only because it was the center of the explosion - with a pressure reduction the greater distance - but also because the shaft was a confined area, thus concentrating the pressure.

If the explosion wasn't able to destroy the walls of the shaft, then it certainly couldn't have been powerful enough to destroy the more massive walls which were farther away, and in a less confined area.

Interestingly, in the next chapter about the damage in the lobby, other elevators, with no access to the impact zone, suffered much greater damage than those that had.

To be continued...

MM (for NK-44)
Edited by Miragememories, May 26 2009, 08:15 AM.
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Continuation of NK-44's paper..

THE 22nd FLOOR

From the 9/11-Commission Report:
"A jet fuel fireball erupted upon impact and shot down at least one bank of elevators. The fireball exploded onto numerous floors, including the 77th and 22nd; the West Street lobby level; and the B4 level, four stories below ground."
(ch.9, pg.285)

Now, that's an amazing fireball.


The SCC and the damage on the 22nd floor

What happened on the 22nd floor requires a closer look. After the WTC 93 bombing, the decision was made to add to the already existing OCC (Operations Control Center) - which was located in Basement 1- the SCC (Security Control Center) on the 22nd floor.

In "The World Trade Center Bombing:Report and Analysis", Donald J. Burns stated about the situation after the blast in 1993:

"The single control room had worked fairly well over the years, but when the blast knocked the control room out of service, the drawbacks of having only one control room for the entire complex were brought to the forefront. With the control room inoperative, communication between command and the floors became impossible." (pg.49)
http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/downloads/txt/publications/tr-076.txt

The SCC controlled the Closed Curcuit TV (CCTV) of the WTC complex, the HVAC-System (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) and the access to the roof and the Mechanical Equipment Rooms (MER). Simultaneously with the
basement explosions, the SCC was disabled due to an explosion, causing more stress and handicaps to the emergency efforts.

We start with a compilation from the NIST-reports:

"Unfortunately, the individual was unaware of the condition of the 22nd floor, where critical communications hardware in the hidden security command center lay in ruins, likely preventing any building-wide public address announcements from reaching the occupants."
(NIST NCSTAR 1-7, Chapter 6)

"When I got to the 22nd floor there was a lot of debris, everything was pushed to the center of the building. The windows were knocked out and I could feel the wind. I could not see. I got a radio transmission that everyone in Tower 1, get out."
(NIST NCSTAR1-8, pg.106)

"8.47 a.m. WTC security radio report, PA Channel X - "...?...There is a fire on 22. 8.47 a.m. WTC security radio report, PA Channel X- "....?...on the 22nd floor a lot of debris."
(NIST NCSTAR1-8, pg.194)

"9.54 a.m. WTC Vertical Transportation message indicates that an officer is located on floor 22, fire command center and that there is heavy traffic in the B stairway. The person indicates that they cannot release any emergency locked door due to fire and the loss of electrical power. (PA/WTC Vertical Transportation Radio CHannel Z)."
(NIST-Progress Report June 04 -Appendix P, pg.35)

"8.47 a.m. WTC security reports that there is fire on floor 22 of WTC1 (PA/WTC Security Radio CHannel X).
8.49 a.m. WTC Security reports that there is damage and a lot of debris on floor 22 of WTC1 (PA/WTC Security Radio Channel X)."

(NIST-Progress Report June 04 -Appendix P, pg.36)

"9.57 a.m. WTC Security: a report is received that an officer is responding to WTC 1 Fire Command and that he had been trying to contact the Command Center on floor 22, but they didn't know how to operate the other set of communication equipment. (PA/WTC Security Radio Channel X)."
(NIST-Progress Report June 04 -Appendix P, pg.148)

From Port Authority Transcripts:

Page 5:
FEMALE TRAPPED ON 22ND FLOOR: Can you repeat that again, please?
MALE : Josie, what's the condition on twenty-two?
FEMALE TRAPPED ON 22ND FLOOR: twenty-two is we cannot leave the area.
There is a lot of smoke outside, we are stuck inside.


Page 15:
FEMALE TRAPPED ON 22ND FLOOR: (ALARMS IN BACKGROUND) S4, this is the
SCC, we have (inaudible) running ... the air is clearing up just a little bit but we
still can't get out, and we are losing power, we don't have as much power.
GENE RAGGIO: Josie, okay, they are aware that you can't open that door,
and they will be up there, and get that debris out of the way

FEMALE TRAPPED ON 22ND FLOOR: That's a big ten-four, thank you.


Page 31:
FEMALE TRAPPED ON 22ND FLOOR: That's a copy. We can't use the software right now to try to release the doors. But it can't ...
MALE: There's a (Overlap)
FEMALE TRAPPED ON 22ND FLOOR: There's no power for the doors.(PAUSE)
MALE: Did you copy that, S2?
MALE: I said we're on 16, working our way up.
FEMALE TRAPPED ON 22ND FLOOR: That's a big ten-four, thank you.

(9/11 Transcripts and Police Reports, Transcript 48)

From the EMS log:

"Firefighter Long on 22nd floor:
We made it up to the 22nd floor. We stood there for a couple minutes. I believe Andy Desperito talked to the battalion through the fire warden phones. We did locate somebody at the end of the hall, but everything was blown out. The ceiling had fallen. The drop ceiling had blown to the floor. Some of the walls were blown out. So Andy and I had crawled down the hallway to get to the Port Authority command post."

http://www.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/nyregion/EMSLog.pdf

And other sources:

"First plane hit our building at 8:45. We decided to evacuate from the 22nd floor after 15 minutes. The delay was because we did not know the extent of the damage; part of the 22nd floor was sheared away and the corridor was blocked by fallen debris. Four of us decided it was better to try to get out than stay and wait to be rescued (in hindsight a good decision). We had to crawl for ten to fifteen feet under debris to get to the fire stairs...."
http://web.archive.org/web/20011202160232/http://huemer.com/

"The 22nd floor was also affected by fire: On September 12, 2001, NY News Day reported that officials had recently taken steps to secure the towers against aerial attacks by installing bulletproof windows and fireproof doors in the 22nd-floor computer command center. "When the fire started, the room was sealed,"
said [Hermina] Jones, who was in the command center when explosions rocked the building. "Flames were shooting off the walls....We started putting wet towels under the doors. The Fire Department unsealed the door and grabbed us by the hand and said, 'Run!' "

http://web.archive.org/web/20050404131349/http://www.nynewsday.com/news/local/manhattan/wtc/ny-nyaler122362178sep12,0,7280472,print.story

Now we take a look into the situation of the elevators on the 22nd floor.

22nd floor - elevator damage

Firefighter Paul Bessler:
"On the 22nd floor, some of the elevator shafts were actually open."
http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/nyregion/20050812_WTC_GRAPHIC/9110503.PDF

Firefighter Craig Dunne:
"The elevator shafts were blown out, so they had to make their way around--the fire came down the elevator shafts."
http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/nyregion/20050812_WTC_GRAPHIC/9110490.PDF

Firefighter Michael Yarembinsky:
"When we got to 22, we heard there was a Port Authority command post on 22. So we were stopped there. My officer wanted to find out some information, my officer Lieutenant Andy Desperito. He went over to the command post. We noticed in the hallway that the elevator shaft had been blown out. There
was nothing there, no doors, no framing, nothing. When you looked down, all you saw was the cables for the elevator and the brick work that was surrounding.
"

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/nyregion/20050812_WTC_GRAPHIC/9110446.PDF

It is known that two shafts continued from the impact zone down to the basement. These shafts were also the only ones reaching from the impact zone to the 22nd floor.

It's very important to note that Cars 6 and 7 didn't stop on floor 22. Only Car 5, 48, 50 and the elevators of Bank B did. There were no doors, or framing, which could have been blown out in the case of Car 6 and 7. The only one remaining for the official version to be true, is Car 50, the main freight elevator. But firefighter Yarembinsky also describes looking down and just seeing cables. Obviously the car would be in the shaft somewhere, most likely out of sight, but he describes seeing the elevator cables, which if severed, as they were in the case of car 50, they would not just be hanging there.

So elevator 6 and 7 had no door framings, and the remaining elevator 50 had no cables still hanging inside its shaft. It must be concluded, that Yarembinsky is not talking about one of these three elevators, which would of course create a contradiction to the official version.

Despite this, from firefighter Dunne and Bessler we also know that more than one elevator was affected. So more than just elevator 50.

The firefighter accounts show that elevators, which did not reach into the impact zone, were affected by an explosion. How did the jet-fuel get there? And how could the fireball explode on the 22nd floor and on basement-levels, without causing similar damage to all the floors between?

22nd floor - exclusively damaged?

In contrast to the damage on the 22nd floor, there's no damage one floor below:

Firefighter W.Mera:
"So we got up to the 22nd, threw our gear down, dropped back down to the 21st and forced the door.
Q. It was clear?
Firefighter W.Mera: Clear as day. We started to search. We searched every room in there. I remember forcing one door, beautiful mahogany doors, beautiful trim, taking off the little trim between the doors and I'm thinking to myself, wow, this is a beautiful door, because you can do some damage to this, you know. The search was negative. There was nobody anywhere. (...) At about the 22nd floor, we came across the first firemen. It was a relief to see these men. They assured us we were going to be ok, and that everything below us was ok. I recall one fireman saying "It’s smooth sailing from here on end, so walk quickly, but safely." That was a very reassuring moment.

Many of these firefighters were out of breath. They were tired, drenched in sweat and some were even on the floor resting. Image running up 20 flights of stairs with an oxygen tank on the shoulders, an axe, a metal rod, a hose, and all their protective clothing. That must be over a hundred pounds of gear.

The rest of the way down was truly fast; it was even unexpected."(...) "Everything below us was ok".

http://web.archive.org/web/20011214101327/http://www.salsationonline.com/jareau.htm

And probably no damage on the floor above. From firefighter M. Brodbeck, who was unsure at the beginning, but then seems to clarify it as floor 23:

"We went up to the mezzanine, and we took an elevator. The chief said that these elevators were all right. We took the elevator which I believe goes up to eight. We got off at eight and proceeded to walk up to 23. We stopped on 23, and then we went up to 25. Then we made our way back down. So we were either on 23 or 21. I don't know. I don't remember that. I think it was 23. The lieutenant gave us instructions to make a thorough search, pop all the doors, make sure everybody is out of the building. Me and the irons man went. I left
my can and I took the Halligan. He had the router tool. We probably popped at least 10 or 15 doors making a search.
Q. On what floor?
A. On 23 or 21. I'm still confused about that. I believe it was 23.
At this point after we made a thorough search, we located together via the stairwell.[...]
Q. When you were on the 23rd floor doing a search, what were the conditions?
A. Fine. Nothing up there.
Q. No smoke? No sign of water flowing anywhere?
Q. The stairwell dry?
A. The stairwell was dry. No water.
Q. Do you remember what stairwell you were in?
A. I believe B.
Q. B?
A. We came down B. From what I understand, it was the only one that was not obstructed. It was a good thing we were going down B. When we were going up, there didn't seem to be that many firemen. I believe we were probably one of the first 15 units on the scene. We got there pretty quick. I happened to see that thing on CNN from 7 Engine. They were on 21. I didn't see them. I'm pretty sure it was 23 that we were on. There's a lot of doors. We popped a ton of doors, looking for people. To be honest with you, I remember looking out the window and seeing that command post on West Street, thinking it wasn't a good idea to be there. I've been on six years. When I looked down, it didn't seem like a real bright place to have one. Little things like that stuck out in my mind. When I looked out on that, I felt uncomfortable about that."

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/nyregion/20050812_WTC_GRAPHIC/9110291.PDF

But there's an account to the contrary:

FDNY Lieutenant Mickey Kross:
"When I got up to 23, it was kind of quiet on the floor–very dark. I saw some firefighters moving around, but not any command posts or chiefs. The hallway was full of debris where I was walking, debris about three feet high covering a whole section of the hallway. I was puzzled as to what that was, because I knew
that the plane had hit way above us. So as I got there I realized it was the elevator shafts. The doors or the walls had probably blown out, and I had to climb over the debris to get the other side of the hallway. Here, I was a little concerned about falling into the pit, the elevator shaft."

(Smith, Dennis: "Report From Ground Zero",.pg. 72/73)

But it seems Lieutenant Kross confused the floor numbers and was actually referring to floor 22. From another source:

"The lobby of the North Tower, where the on-site fire command station was, was full of officials from all the local agencies as well as a number of firefighters who were already staged there, waiting to receive their orders. My unit was instructed to team up with another engine company and ascend the B stairway
to a command post on the 23rd floor."

http://www.buildthememorial.org/site/PageServer?pagename=sys_feature_MickeyK

He assumedly confused the command post on the 22nd floor with the 23rd floor. His description of damage matches all other descriptions of the damage on the 22nd floor. For instance, compare it with this one:

"Lieutenant Desperito and I believe one other member of Engine 1 tried to make their way down the hallway on the 22nd floor off the B stairwell to the command post. We were there three or four minutes. The elevator shafts were blown out, so they had to make their way around."
http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/nyregion/20050812_WTC_GRAPHIC/9110490.PDF

So, Kross' account is not a contradiction but rather corroboration. It seems that floor 22 was a specific target instead of being accidentally damaged by a fireball.

What could be a possible motive to attack the SCC and the basement? Though an answer to that will always be within the realm of speculation, the observed consequences of the explosion on the 22nd floor should provide that answer. These effects are discussed in the section entitled "The Emergency".

The Operations Control Center

The SCC had a back-up, the Operations Control Center (OCC):

"A new operations center will contain backup for the security command center, and the security command center will contain backup for operations center functions, including alarms, intercoms and elevator controls.

Remote processors for access control and alarms at the parking garages, and workstations at the guard booths, parking office, visitor centers and security command center and other areas, are connected to a main, redundant file server."

http://securitysolutions.com/mag/security_world_trade_center/index.html

Posted Image

"Security Command Center was built on the 22 and floor of 1 WTC, backed up by a new Operations Control Center on the subgrade B1 level at 2 World Trade Center."
http://www.9-11commission.gov/hearings/hearing11/reiss_statement.pdf

Though it's known that the OCC wasn't directly affected by explosions like the SCC, it played virtually no role in the emergency response. Unlike the occupants of the SCC, occupants of the OCC reported no damage to their command center, which is also confirmed by this report.
http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-2035442/It-sounded-like-an-avalanche.html-page.html

Note also this statement from the report:

"When the first plane hit, Compas was in his office on the basement level of the hotel. "It sounded to me as if there were three loud bangs and then the building shook," he says."

Interestingly, he experienced three loud bangs and then the building shook. As the building allegedly shook due to the plane impact, shouldn't the bangs, traveling with the sound of speed, be heard after the buildings shook?

Note that Compas left the OCC after the first plane hit. So did Douglas Karpiloff
(http://securitysolutions.com/mag/security_wtc_tragedy_took/),
who was last time seen in the OCC before he went out to help people. Ed Calderon also left the OCC, and was last seen running toward the North Tower, after guiding dozens of workers to safety.
http://inmemoriamonline.net/Profiles/Folders/C_Folder/Calderon_Edward.html
When the people in the SCC were still trapped, the OCC has already been evacuated:

"Male S2: S2 to SCC.
Male: S2!
Male: I want to tell you, the OCC is out. They had to evacuate (38:45) [about 09:25]."

(PA Transcript 048, p.24)
http://adam.pra.to/public/mir/www.thememoryhole.org/911/pa-transcripts/pa-transcript048.pdf

It would be interesting to know why they "had“ to evacuate. The Port Authority transcripts don't reveal when exactly the OCC "had to evacuate", but from janitor William Rodriguez it is known that the OCC wasn't manned when he arrived, which was before the second plane had hit:

"I find water all over, run straight to the south tower where they have the OCC (operation control center) that was created after 1993. They spent $155 million to retrofit the building, and to supposedly straighten it out after the 1993 bombing, and to set up a whole security system, the control center. When I got there and started hitting the window there was nobody there. There was nobody there—the control center, where they have all the cameras, and the recordings."
http://arabesque911.blogspot.com/2007/05/heroism-of-william-rodriguez-amazing.html

Rodriguez statement is confirmed by the PA-transcript.
http://adam.pra.to/public/mir/www.thememoryhole.org/911/pa-transcripts/pa-transcript048.pdf
On page 2 it is learned that Ed Calderon was at his desk ("seven-seven"), when the first report of fire from the 22nd floor came in. Shortly after that, Gene Raggio tried to get in contact with Calderon's desk 77, several times, but he received no answer. On page 10, just minutes before the second plane's impact, it is revealed that someone repeatedly tried to get in contact with Calderon's OCC desk 77, and finally, after receiving no answer, he asked the SCC to "call the OCC, see if they are still in operation and what the status of their alarm desk is."

In contradiction to that, is a statement from the book "102 Minutes"(http://www.amazon.com/102-Minutes-Untold-Survive-Inside/dp/0805076824)
(we will look more into this quote in another section):

"Marie Refuse, one of the security officers on duty in the 22nd floor center, was still at her desk at 9:30. She spoke with Ed Calderon, a supervisor, whose radio code was S-5."

Is this statement false? Was Calderon still in the OCC? No, he wasn't, but the statement is still 'effectively' correct. From another transcript
(http://www.thememoryhole.org/911/pa-transcripts/pa-transcript050.pdf)
(WTC Ch. 29, pg.22/23) we can learn why:

Gene: John, where are you at? Where's Ed Calderon?
John: He's right....He's right he, Gene, he's on the phone.
Gene: (...)What's your location right now?
John: We're here by the OCC.
Gene: (...)the OCC desk?
John: That's affirmative, Gene.
Gene: Roger, thanks, John. Uh, I'll give you a call. Stand by a second, I'll call
Ed.
John: Copy that. (38:35)


That means Ed Calderon returned to the OCC at approx. 9:25 (38:35 into the recording). Since the message that the OCC had to evacuate was made at the same time, it seems that Calderon only returned to the OCC to give out the information that it has been evacuated. That the OCC played no role in the emergency efforts is also confirmed by the 9/11 Commission Hearings and by the NIST's "Emergency Response Operations Report."
http://wtc.nist.gov/oct05NCSTAR1-8index.htm
In it, the OCC is only mentioned twice in relation to the emergency response as it happened on 9/11:

"A building Fire Safety Director spoke with one of the FDNY Chiefs about the possibility of using elevator phones for communication with the building's Operation Command Center (OCC). This person and a FDNY Battakion Chief were dispatched to go and check it out. These men were never seen again."
(NIST NCSTAR1-8, pg.46)

"8:58:04 WTC Security radio report, PA Channel X- "What elevators are running in Building number One?"...(?)...OCC...(?)... "S2 to all security guards, hold your posts. Don't allow people in...(?).... Do not allow anyone into the courtyard of any ...(?).... leading into the.....(?)...copy?"
(NIST NCSTAR1-8, pg.200)

See how the loss of the OCC had been weighted in the WTC 93 bombing:

"The loss of the Operations Control Center (OCC) on level B1 was one of the most significant events in the incident period. The emergency response of the complex was based on the premise that trained OCC operators would be able to receive information from areas involved in an emergency and provide response instructions to trained people throughout the complex."
http://web.archive.org/web/20000915095636/http://www.sos.se/SOS/PUBL/REFERENG/9603020E.htm
The NIST never addressed why the OCC had to evacuate and how this affected the emergency response.

To be continued...

MM (for NK-44)
Edited by Miragememories, May 27 2009, 07:49 AM.
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Continuation of NK-44's paper.


THE LOBBY

For reference;

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In the center and marked in red, is elevator 50.

Directly beneath and just to the left of it, are elevators 6, and 7.

The FDNY command post, is shown in the upper left, and is also marked in red.

On the right side you can see the Plaza-escalators, and on the south side is the
exit/entrance to the Marriot Hotel.


Lobby Damage

North Side

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West Side

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No signs of burning or soot are visible in any of these pictures. Even the plants in the area weren't singed. If a fireball had sufficient blast pressure to blow out the windows on the west front as well as destroy the heavy, well secured marble panels of the core-walls, some visible signs of burning would be expected. The Naudet-brothers footage provides no indication that the blown windows and panels were the result of a fireball.

From the member of the (old) Loose Change Forum, "HocusLocus":

"A working graphic I put together to examine conditions in NT lobby with elevator car numbers and floors served. Blueprint A-A-20 overlays it directly in dull blue, original graphic was probably drawn from that. Naudet entered from the West (left), marble facing damage is noted in orange."

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"As pasted onto the diagram above, a wider view of the "marble facing damage"...

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"I did a 'perspective undistort' after erasing objects which occlude the 2 dimensional plane of interest -- The core section of the Lobby, West wall -- to make a composite of images which represent the clearest possible photographic record of marble facing damage in North Tower Lobby:

Posted Image

So we have blast pressure coming out of the core elevator hallway that is sufficient to unhinge the drop-down facing over the top of the interior hallway -- but not blow it off. We have what appears to be a severe dislocation event along the West wall of the core -- but not along its full extent. The damage is mostly confined to the portion of West wall that is immediately in front of the Zone Local elevators that served floors 25-32."

East Side

Compare the damage to the east-side of the lobby. In the background to the left, you can see the east-side wall of the core:

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Figure 8-2. Escalator from mezzanine to concourse level in WTC 1 on 9/11

No damage is visible, same with the east-side perimeter windows:
Posted Image

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Figure 8-1. View from mezzanine level in WTC 1 looking east across
WTC plaza, covered with debris. 'Sphere,' artwork by Fritz Koening,
can be seen on the plaza.


Posted Image

In the background (above) you can see some of the east side revolving doors

Here's a closer view:

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They are undamaged as well.

The damage pattern is inconsistent with the location of the express elevators. As previously noted, the doors of elevators 6 and 7 were closed. Therefore jet-fuel, if present, had no outside access to the lobby where it could vaporize into an explosive fuel-air mixture. The absence of an explosive fuel-air mixture is evidenced by the fact that the maximum damage occurred away from that area. This is confirmed by eyewitnesses: no one in the lobby reported the occurrence of jet-fuel before any explosion.

Also, elevator 50 has been ruled out based on the testimonies of Griffith and Cruz. But even without their reports, elevator 50 must be ruled out, due to the inconsistent damage pattern.

In addition to the visual evidence, the firefighter-testimonies left no doubt that the express elevators suffered only minor damage compared to other elevators, whose shafts did not reach as far as the impact zone.

Damage caused by shaking?

Before going into the eyewitnesses reports, one particular counter argument should be addressed. That is the contention that the plane impact and the subsequent shaking of the building caused the damage.

Indeed, there are many reports,
(http://911stories.googlepages.com/insidethenorthtower:witnessaccounts91-60)
that ceiling ties collapsed or that water pipes were broken on the upper floors. But this explanation does not account for the damage in the lobby or the basement. As has already been seen, damage in the basement was ccompanied with strong winds and smoke. Effects uncommon with structural vibration. Also, if the damage in the lobby was caused by the shaking of the building, why would this result in only lobby level windows breaking, but not at the higher floors, which were more stressed by swaying? And why would the windows blow out only on a particular site of the lobby?

Besides the windows, if the removed marble panels were result of the impact one might also expect to observe this phenomena on the opposite east-side, or on the north-side of the core, where the plane hit and the columns experienced the most stress.

From the NIST:

Posted Image
http://wtc.nist.gov/WTC_Conf_Sep13-15/session3/3Fahim2.pdf

Here's the account of Earlyne Johnson:

"The communications specialist had just missed the elevator up to her 65th-floor office when she felt an explosion, followed by a hail of shattering glass. She covered her head with her arms, dashed for the exit, then set out to find her 51-year-old, asthmatic mother."
http://nymag.com/news/features/19146/index1.html

If the breaking of the windows in the lobby, or the collapsing and cracking of walls in the basement, were caused by the swaying, it would be expected to have occurred over a longer period - as long as the duration of the heavy
vibration - and not to have happened within an instant.

Lobby Damage - eyewitnesses accounts

An examination of the eyewitness accounts, starts with the experience of FDNY Lieutenant William Walsh for the WTC Task Force:

"[Lt. Walsh:] What I observed as I was going through these doors and I got into the lobby of the World Trade Center was that the lobby of the Trade Center didn't appear as though it had any lights.

All of the glass on the first floor that abuts West Street was blown out. The glass in the revolving doors was blown out. All of the glass in the lobby was blown out.

The wall panels on the wall are made of marble. It's about two or three inches thick. They're about ten feet high by ten feet wide. A lot of those were hanging off the wall.


[Walsh:] What else I observed in the lobby was that -- there's basically two areas of elevators. There's elevators off to the left-hand side which are really the express elevators. That would be the elevators that's facing north. Then on the right-hand side there's also elevators that are express elevators, and that would be facing south. In the center of these two elevator shafts would be elevators that go to the lower floors. They were blown off the hinges. That's where the service elevator was also.

[B.C. Congiusta:] Were these elevators that went to the upper floors? They weren't side lobby elevators?

[Walsh:] No, no, I'd say that they went through floors 30 and below.

[B.C. Congiusta:] And they were blown off?

[Walsh:] They were blown off the hinges, and you could see the shafts. The elevators on the extreme north side and the other express elevator on the extreme south side, they looked intact to me from what I could
see, the doors anyway."

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/nyregion/20050812_WTC_GRAPHIC/9110442.PDF

According to his testimony, the only damaged elevators were in the center of the core, and not on the north or south side bank. This eliminates 6 and 7, since they were in the south side bank. And as he is speaking in plural, and explicitly mentions that the elevators in question served the lower floors from “30 and below“, which would be elevators from Bank A and B, it can also be concluded that he is not talking of elevator 50 - although its location is in the center of the core. Thus his account stands in bright contrast to the official version.

Local bank elevators most damaged

From additional firefighter accounts it's also evident that the express elevators were not the most severed ones. Starting with this most descriptive account, provided by firefighter Bill Wall.

Firefighter Bill Wall:
"We get into the lobby of the north tower and the first elevator bank, there was one elevator out of the six that still had the lights on, but they couldn't get it to work. Meanwhile, all the other elevators were blown off their doors. So we tried the next elevator bank of six and they finally got one that worked to the 24th floor. I think it was captain of 21 he went up to check. He went up and he came back down. He went up with his guys and someone from the truck took the elevator. And then the other engine went up in the next load, 22, and on the
load after that, the truck was going up. They wanted one of our guys to run the elevators since there was only one truck, so I gave the control radio to Fireman Louie Cacchioli."

http://www.firehouse.com/terrorist/911/magazine/gz/wall.html

In that quote, it is learned that when firefighter Lieutenant Bill Wall first enters the North Tower, they tried an elevator in the first bank. Only one of the elevators still had its lights on, the rest had their doors blown off. Wall is
referring to a local elevator bank because he tells us the bank has 6 elevators in it, and this could only mean a local bank. He also explained that he then tried the next elevator bank of 6, bank A. In this bank they were able to find a working elevator, which took them as high as the 24th floor.

By looking at the local elevator elevations, it can be seen that only one local bank reached to floor 24. That bank is bank B.
(Zone1 Elevation Banks ABCD)
http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/evidence/plans/frames.html

This also means that the first bank that Wall describes as having all elevator doors blown off, except for one with its lights still on, had to be of bank A.

Bank A elevators went as high as the 16th floor. That Lieutenant Wall is talking of bank A and B is corroborated by this quote from the NIST:

The Port Authority vertical transportation personnel and FDNY Command Post staff were unaware of the elevator that was operating inside WTC 1. This elevator was staffed by a WTC building Elevator Starter. The Elevator Starter took a small number of FDNY personnel up to the 16th floor using this elevator. (NIST NCSTAR 1-8, p.79)

This is the elevator Lieutenant Wall spoke of. The only one in bank A still having its light on and which they couldn't get to work at that time, so they went to the next bank.

So how does jet-fuel find its way into bank A? A bank of local elevators which only served up to floor 16, and then on floor 19 became floorspace for toilets. A bank which was nowhere near the only 2 shafts which had continuity from the impact zone to the lower levels.

To the best of my knowledge, this is only existing picture of the inner core:

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Looking from east to west, elevator bank A is located at the first opening on the right hand side, where the man in the yellow shirt appears to be emerging. Note that this area does not appear to be burnt.

On the left are the express elevators, beginning with elevator 5, and followed by 6 and 7. Though it's hard to see because of the blurry image quality, it seems that, beginning from the location of elevator 5, the ceiling and walls are charred. Note that no marble panels appear visibly removed and that no blown-out cars can be observed.

Supporters of the official version frequently remark that explosives do not produce significant flame, and what appears to be a burnt area within the center of the core, could not have been produced by explosives. It is known that this is not at all true and that explosives can produce burnt areas (see section-"About explosions").

But anyway, it was possible for a jet-fuel fireball to emerge from shafts 6/ 7 or 50. It's also possible that this fireball caused the burnt walls and ceiling shown in the screen shot.

Lieutenant Bill Wall tells us bank A had 5 out of 6 of its elevator doors blown off. There appears to be no burnt walls or ceiling around elevator bank A (and bank B as well). And firefighter Green reported, that the ceiling over a pile of burned bodies wasn't charred (see his account below on page 62).

The center of the core area, where quite possibly burning jet-fuel emerged, was black and charred. The hallway-side of bank A, where Lieutenant Bill witnessed blown elevators, remained unburnt (as far as can be determined from the picture). Unburnt just like the rest of the lobby, despite the charred area in the
inner core. Besides the fact that jet-fuel cannot explain the damage to elevator bank A, the screen shot of the core provides additional evidence that the jet-fuel fireball and the explosions were two separate events.

From the existing footage it's known that the east-side of the lobby and its core suffered less damage than the west side (no destroyed windows or removed marble panels) - despite almost all elevators on the east side in bank A and B being destroyed. So it seems that banks C and D suffered even greater damage. This is indicated by the following accounts, though they (or some of them) could also refer to bank A and B, as they are more vague and less descriptive than Bill Wall's one.

Firefighter John Moribito:
"I noticed that some of the elevators had been blown out of their shafts. They came down and crashed out of the shaft. They were buckled, and I had noticed that there were people still in the elevators. I believe that they were at that point deceased. Then I saw the lights in both buildings went out, and I heard the
rumble. At that point, I didn’t know what was happening, but 2 World Trade Center was collapsing."

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/nyregion/20050812_WTC_GRAPHIC/9110354.PDF

This could not have been elevator 50 nor could it have been 6 and 7 - which were out of service and their cars parked at B1. So why did they come down and "crashed out of their shafts“, when their cables were not in the impact zone? How could they have been "blown out of their shafts" when even elevator 6, 7 and 50 were not blown out? Those were the only possible origins for the explosion - at least according to the official version. It seems that Moribito misinterpreted the violent affects on the elevator cars, believing the observed buckling was caused by their crashes, which he did not witness. He witnessed only the result, but the cause was only his interpretation. His account corroborates Wall's account: that the most severed elevators were not the express elevators

Firefighter Peter Blaich:
"The same thing happened to the elevators in the main lobby. They were basically blown out. I don't recall if I actually saw people in there. What got me initially in the lobby was that as soon as we went in, all the windows were blown out, and there were one or two burning cars outside."
http://www.firehouse.com/terrorist/911/magazine/gz/blaich.html

Firefighter Blaich corroborates Moribito's account, that elevator cars have been blown out. The exact location of them remains unknown, but 6/7 and 50. can be excluded.

Firefighter Brian Becker:
"When we got to the staging area inside the lobby, I remember seeing other companies. I remember vividly seeing it looked like the core elevators of the building were blown apart as if a giant had punched through tinfoil. I remember seeing some bodies."
http://www.nytimes.com/packages/html/nyregion/20050812_WTC_GRAPHIC/9110266.PDF

Again, the core elevators.

Firefighter Peter Fallucca:
"Before we got in, all the elevators were crashed down in the lobby, and we were going to the stairwell. See all the elevators were crashed down, big slabs of marble on the floor, all the ceiling tiles of the dropped ceiling was falling down, wires hanging. You see wires and stuff hanging inside the elevator shafts,
because the doors were blown right off the elevators. (...) There was one body inside the lobby. Looked like his legs were chopped off. I don't know where he came from, but he had already had a triage tag on him. It was a civilian. I don't know where he came from, how he died. Looked like his clothes were a little burnt up on him, but his legs were chopped off."

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/html/nyregion/20050812_WTC_GRAPHIC/met_WTC_histories_full_01.html

Of course "all elevators" is an exaggeration. He certainly should not have used the phrase “all elevators“ when only a few had been affected. And again it's another example of damage being misinterpreted as being caused by "crashing" elevators. Note that "chopped off legs" indicates a shock wave, in line with an explosive device, not a jet-fuel deflagration. Another quote regarding - supposedly the same - leg:

"After about an hour of maneuvering the stairwells, Forney and his group reached the lobby, but the unnerving sight of the outside world brought no reassurance. "On the ground you saw black, some metal objects, but a lot of stuff was smoldering," Forney said. "I remember seeing a leg, but I didn’t see the body."
http://web.archive.org/web/20020607071424/http://www.rice.edu/projects/reno/rn/20011115/Templates/survivor.html

Firefighter Geroge Kozlowski:
"We did see bodies that got pulled out of the elevators because all the elevators fell."

Of course 'all the elevators fell' is just poor inaccurate phrasing. It would be interesting to know from which elevators, bodies were pulled out. It's established that the people in elevator 50 survived, even though that was the most likely path for jet-fuel to reach the basement and the lobby, while people in elevators not connected to the impact zone, i.e. no path for jet-fuel, died as consequence of the blast.

Firefighter William Green:
"We entered in through the front doors of the lobby. The lobby was screwed. All the windows were already broken. Marble walls that surrounded the elevator shaft, they were cracked and broken. I’m still thinking a bomb went off.

We headed for the B staircase. It was pretty much in the center of the core. We had to go through these turnstiles. I remember there was a lot of rubble on the floor there. There was elevator doors ajar. There were elevator doors missing. I could see an elevator car twisted in the shaft.

I remember I looked up at the ceiling because I thought maybe the ceiling got charred because there was a bunch of rubble on the floor. It was about three feet high in the middle. The ceiling wasn’t charred. So I had thought the floor blew up.

I was telling guys afterwards the floor must have blown up. Maybe there was a bomb downstairs or something. But I came to learn that that was bodies. We had to climb over and around this pile.
Q. A pile of bodies, in the lobby?
A. I didn’t recognize it as bodies. I don’t know if my mind didn’t see it.
Q. Burned?
A. Burned.
Q. Near the elevators?
A. It looked like rubble to me.
Q. Right.
A. Right outside the elevators, in the core. We had to climb up and around it—it was like three feet high in the middle—to enter the B staircase."

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/nyregion/20050812_WTC_GRAPHIC/9110392.PDF

Why does firefighter Green still think that a bomb went off? Because what he describes matches with effects caused by a detonation. Even the ceiling over the pile of bodies wasn't charred. A pile which wasn't recognized as being bodies even by an experienced firefighter.

So the people in this area of damaged elevators - elevators which had no connectivity to the impact zone - suffered not only burnings, but also violent blast effects. One man - little burned - had his legs chopped off. Others had their clothes blown off, another man's tongue was lying on the ground (see account of Moribito).

Elevators 6 and 7

The account most in support of the official version comes from Dave Bobbitt,
Port Authority Operations:

"It was quite hectic, and we did what we could to stay in contact with the elevator passengers while helping to direct other people out of the building and direct firemen to the stairs and the elevators," Bobbitt remarked. "When entering the North Tower, we saw the marble on the walls was severely cracked, and Riccardelli told everyone to stay back from the walls. Don (Parente) noticed that the doors of elevators number 6 and 7 had been blown out." (From "Courage Above and Beyond the Call of Duty: A Report of the September 11")

Elevator 6 and 7 are explicitly mentioned, and this is the only account regarding the lobby in which damage to these elevators is ever mentioned. The blown doors could have been the result of a jet-fuel explosion, but not necessarily. Elevators 6 and 7 had doors that opened on both sides. If the doors were only blown out on the north side, this would more likely be the result of an explosion emerging from somewhere outside, since there is no reason to assume that the exploding gas in the shaft would only expand to one side while leaving the doors on the south side intact.

If the damage in the lobby was caused by an explosion inside shaft 6/7, then it would be expected that severe damage, including broken glass, would have occurred on the south side front of the lobby, where elevators 6 and 7 also had openings - in contrast to the damage on the west side, which was shielded by two elevator banks.

South side

Unfortunately, no footage from the south side has been released to the public. But from other eyewitnesses accounts it is evident that the south side did not experience damage comparable to the west side:

Ronnie Clifford:
"At around 8.45am, Ronnie walked into the lobby of the Marriott, which was connected to the lobby of the north tower by a revolving door. As he was checking his yellow tie in a mirror, he felt a massive explosion, followed several seconds later by a reverberation, a warping effect that he describes as the "harmonic tolerance of a building that's shaking like a tuning fork". He peered through the revolving door into the lobby of the north tower. It was filling with haze. People were scurrying to escape what had become a "hurricane of flying debris".

Yet Ronnie remained untouched. It was as though the revolving door were a glass portal to another realm, a world of chaos and soot just inches away. The Marriott lobby was calm, the marble surfaces polished and antiseptic."

http://www.booknoise.net/americana/excerpts/index.html

The revolving doors were just across from the south side openings of elevators 6 and 7. If those elevators were the origin of the blast, then why didn't Clifford see a fireball emerging from there, and why was the glass still intact?

That the south side wasn't damaged, but instead served as exit for many people, is also evident from Lakshman Achutan's account. He was attending a business meeting and reported two "thuds“, shaking the chandeliers. He was in a group of 175 people who then "stood up and ran to the exits“.

"As we came out of ballroom we had to chose of either going towards the elevators of the WTC, which was the natural way to go because it was very well laid. Or to go towards the lobby of the hotel".

The elevators he is referring to were the elevators in the south side bank. This is apparent from the fact that they had to choose, to go there, or to the lobby of the Marriot Hotel, which was to the south side of the North Tower.

"And many of us went towards the elevators, but then there was already a lot of dust, coming out , emanating from the elevator shafts that have been forced down. So we went back into the lobby [of the Marriot Hotel], it wasn't very easy to get out because there was a couple of revolving doors, and when you have a lot of people trying to get through them. The security guard opened up a bar which was part of the hotel."

First, a lot of people escaped through the revolving doors on the south side into the lobby of the Marriot Hotel (WTC 3). Thus corroborating Clifford's account. More important, when Achutan and his colleagues entered the lobby of the North Tower, they had to decide whether to go to the elevators or to the south side exit. Certainly, many of them wouldn't have gone towards the elevators when they were heavily severed, with doors, not to mention their cars, blown out.

After realizing that dust was emanating from them, they made the decision to leave the lobby through the undamaged south side exits.

With regard to the official explanation, what makes the concentration of the damage to the west side even more implausible, is the fact, that if shaft 6/7 was the origin, the damage pattern should have occurred in a north-south direction.

"In the express elevator shafts, beams framing in the north-south direction were typically encased in concrete. Steel in the other direction consisted of built-up welded box girders and columns with sprayed on fireproofing."
(NIST NCSTAR 1- 1C)

Thus, the expanding gas in the shaft would have been blocked by a concrete-wall at the west and east side, where the guardrails were placed. The walls on the north and south side were made out of sheet rock. Though no direct footage of the south side is available - besides a small part to the west-corner - we have some indirect visual conformation of the eyewitnesses accounts.

Look at this video.
Posted Image
Video Link below;
http://www.file-upload.net/view-1331031/Peoplefromsouthside.gif.html
Download here;
http://uploading.com/files/P9P02BPN/Peoplefromsouthside.gif.html
or here;
http://www.turboupload.com/files/get/5_ZJ6LrWgJ/peoplefromsouthside.gif

In the above scene, a security guy runs towards a group of women, who have just come around the corner. Responding to the damage they are seeing, they apparently react with astonishment and shock, especially the blond woman in the front. If they had just seen comparable damage on the south side, they shouldn't have been so surprised when they came around the corner to the west side and saw more of the same.

Clearly, the women saw something unexpected when coming around the corner, something they didn't see before, when they were on the south side.

Jet-fuel - the impossible theory

If the express elevators were the origin of the explosion, and if this explosion managed to cause massive damage to the west side of the core and the lobby's west front windows, then it certainly would be expected that similar damage would have occurred on the south side, too. Even though they were not shielded by two elevator banks like the windows on the west front, the windows with a direct sight line to the south side-openings of elevators 6 and 7 were intact. From that it must be concluded that the elevator 6 and 7 doors were - if at all - blown out only on one side - the north side to the center, as a result of an explosion occurring from outside. Looking again at the blurry picture of the core hallway, it doesn't seem that the doors of 6 and 7 have been blown outwards into the corridor floor. Though the picture is inconclusive due to its quality, it at least in no way suggests or implies that elevators 6 and/or 7 were the most severed, and shows that their cars were not blown out.

Remember what the NIST said about elevators 6 and 7:

"The doors were blown off by the fireball that came down the elevator shaft and the elevators cars were burned. (Basement level of WTC 1)."
(NIST NCSTAR 1-8, p.43)

This means that the majority of jet-fuel spilling down shaft 6/7 would have been blocked by the cars at B1, resulting in the bulk of the fuel collecting on their ceilings or entering them - therefore most of it could not have reached the pit in B4. It is unreasonable to assume that all or most of the jet-fuel would just pass around the cars. Thus, we can place Basement 1 as the center of the jet-fuel explosion - presuming there was a jet-fuel explosion in shaft 6/7 at all. Anyway, according to the NIST the cars at B1 were burned - which would be in line with jet-fuel pouring down on them and then igniting, producing charred ceilings over the north-side door openings in the lobby.

But, according to the official version, the jet-fuel exploded in shaft 6/7, blew out walls in Basement 4 and 2 over a great area, blew off the elevator doors in Basement 1 (NIST), blew the north-side openings in the lobby, but left the south-side doors intact, and then destroyed several elevator banks in the north-west and north-east direction - while leaving the south side of the lobby intact. And at the same time the blast left the cars burned, but not destroyed, and left the walls of the shaft intact - which is derived from the NIST's statement that the burnt cars were parked at B1. Not only would this seem unlikely, it would appear to be impossible. But it's not necessary to theorize any more. With the existing eyewitness accounts and the footage, there is enough evidence proving
that shaft 6/7 was not the center of the explosion.

There are the firefighters, who reported that local elevators "were blown apart as if a giant had punched through tinfoil". Footage and corroborated eyewitness accounts establish that the north and south side elevator banks were comparatively intact. None of their cars had been blown out, none of the reports
of dead people inside elevators were attributed to them.

And with the accounts of Griffith and Cruz, the possibility of elevator shaft 50 being the center of the explosions can be laid to rest. Thus, by excluding the only possible shafts as origin for the explosions, the official jet-fuel
theory is refuted.


Confusing events

The whole situation is complicated by the confusing occurrence of different events. There was an explosion immediately following the plane impact. This explosion had violent blast effects and destroyed elevators not reaching into the impact zone, people were killed by the blast and incinerated beyond recognition. Effects in common with explosives.

As well, there is the later occurrence of at least one fireball in the freight elevator shaft. This fireball produced no significant blast pressure - as was the same with all other fireballs reported in the floors below the impact zone -
showing all the signs of a jet-fuel deflagration, putting people on fire. It cannot explain - because of its timing (see chapter 6) and by its blast effect - the damage to the basement and lobby.

The occurrence of (a) later fireball(s) in the lobby is also evident from firefighter accounts, although it cannot be said whether they're related to the same fireball witnessed by Griffith and Cruz.

"Sean, you gotta be careful," Morabito said. "This is a bad situation." They boarded the rig. Morabito was the chauffeur, a job for experienced firefighters with additional training. His officer, Lt. Harrell, sat next to him. Four on-duty and three off-duty firefighters climbed on. Morabito drove only a few yards. Bodies on Liberty Street blocked his path. "I stop the rig, and I look at my officer and say, ‘It’s a body,’ and he says, ‘You gotta go. They’re dead, you gotta go.’ So we rolled over them, pulled down the street."

Turning left on Liberty, they were blocked again by a Lincoln Town Car, a taxi. The woman inside couldn’t get it moving. The siren was on, lights flashing, firefighters yelling from the rear of the truck. A police officer jumped in the Lincoln but couldn’t engage the shifter. "So I had to ram the car," Morabito said. "I push the car, it goes up on the sidewalk." They turned right onto West Street, nearing the entrance to the north tower. A man — in shock, his clothes on fire — crossed in front of them. "He’s completely engulfed in flames, and he’s looking at me because now he thinks I’m going to run him over," Morabito says.

Morabito skidded the truck sideways to stop the man from running and got out as another man came charging off the sidewalk and tackled the burning man, damping out the flames with a jacket. They were 100 feet from the tower entrance.(...) Just inside the front entrance, Morabito found two victims of the fireball. A man, already dead, was pushed against a wall, his clothes gone, his eyeglasses blackened, his tongue lying on the floor next to him. The other was a woman, with no clothes, her hair burned off, her eyes sealed.

"The woman, she sat up. I’m yelling to her, ‘Don’t worry, we’re going to help you,’" Morabito said. "She sat up and was trying to talk, but her throat had closed up. She died right there."

http://www.fdnytenhouse.com/911/story01.htm

Note that between the plane's impact and the observance of the burning man on West Street, there was a timespan of several minutes. If this man did not burn for several minutes, which is unlikely, than this further demonstrates the existence of a later event putting people on fire.

Note also, he described a man who was pushed against the wall with his tongue lying on the floor. It's difficult to imagine this was the result of the same fireball that Griffith witnessed, where Cruz was pulled from the car just seconds before a fireball engulfed it. Why wasn't Cruz and her rescuers blasted against the wall?

Again, this indicates there were different explosions causing different effects, at different times, and with different origins.

Please watch also this interview(at 6:45) by Firefighter John Schroeder,
(http://video.google.com.au/videoplay?docid=-7471885217846396761&q=john+schroeder&total=112&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=1)
which corroborates the occurrence of a fireball in the lobby minutes after the basement-explosion.

The later occurrence of jet-fuel induced fireball(s) makes it easy to understand why people mixed both events (i.e. the initial basement explosion and the later fireball(s)) and confused their results.

What would you think if you arrived at the lobby, experienced a fireball emanating from an elevator and noticed the odor of kerosene? Wouldn't you conclude that, all the damage to the elevators and other structures - were the
results of the first basement explosion - and had all been caused by jet-fuel fireballs?

MM (for NK-44)
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nrmis

Fascinatingly thorough stuff.
I hate to ask but have you heard from again? You mention that he ceased communication abrubtly.
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Miragememories
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nrmis
 
"Fascinatingly thorough stuff.
I hate to ask but have you heard from again? You mention that he ceased communication abruptly."

Unfortunately, in spite of repeated attempts to contact him, I've had no further communication
from NK-44.

MM
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Duffman1013
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TDX
May 25 2009, 09:28 AM
please, see my post about the express elevator shafts and the IB, see the youtube video, you will find the truh and maybe some reasons why he ceased the communication
What post? Do you have the link, please??? Also, what youtube video... this has gotten to me here....
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BoneZ
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Duffman1013
Dec 3 2009, 07:01 AM
What post? Do you have the link, please??? Also, what youtube video... this has gotten to me here....
You can go to TDX's profile and check out his posts. But he thinks he knows what happened at the WTC and that he's right and the whole 9/11 truth movement is wrong. Once you start reading some of his posts, you'll see he has some illogical and improbably unlikely ideas about the way the WTC's collapsed.



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